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California Bill Aims for Quality Control at Farmers Markets

California Bill Aims for Quality Control at Farmers Markets


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California bill AB-1871 would provide funding for farmers market quality control

A proposed bill in California looks to exercise tighter quality control over the agricultural products available at farmers markets throughout the state.

A California bill to police the standards of farmers markets throughout the state has passed through the state Assembly and is now up for consideration by the state Senate. If the bill passes, certified farmers market vendors will be subject to an increased daily stall fee of $2, up from 60 cents according to The Los Angeles Times.

Agricultural products sold by market stalls — including fruits, vegetables, dairy, eggs, honey, livestock, or “any other fresh or processed product produced in California” — that are found to be “false, deceptive, or misleading” may lead to fines between $100 and $3,000, up to six months imprisonment, or both.

Since the late ‘90s, the number of farmers markets in California has reportedly grown from 300 to 800. And although new markets have provided more access for farmers and shoppers alike, “they have also cannibalized existing markets,” says The LA Times.

The advent of profitable buzzwords like “fresh,” “local,” and “organic” have inspired other businesses to take advantage of the cachet, and instead of farmers providing direct access to consumers, groceries and restaurants have taken on the role of providing farmers market produce.

Only recently did Los Angeles county’s agricultural commissioner begin a serious effort to police unsavory practices, like market stalls that resell produce purchased from elsewhere.

If passed into law, the bill will raise an estimated $1.35 million, which will be used for local and state quality control efforts.

Karen Lo is an associate editor at The Daily Meal. Follow her on Twitter @appleplexy.


California plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 40% by 2030

In July 2017, California’s state legislature passed assembly bill (AB) 398 to reauthorize and extend until 2030 the state’s economy-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction program. The bill sets a new GHG target of at least 40% below the 1990 level of emissions by 2030. As of 2015, about 86% of California’s GHG emissions were related to the consumption of energy.

The original bill that established the state’s greenhouse gas reduction program, AB 32, passed in 2006 and authorized the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to monitor and regulate sources emitting greenhouse gases. The initial target was to reduce emissions to the 1990 level by 2020. An executive order from California’s governor targets an 80% reduction from 1990 levels by 2050.

From 1990 to 2015, California’s GHG emissions from the electric power sector were reduced by 24%, the largest percentage decline among sectors. Over that same period, commercial and residential sector emissions fell by about 14%, and industrial emissions fell by 13%. Transportation-related emissions declined from 2007 through 2013, but they rose in both 2014 and 2015. California’s GHG emissions from agriculture and other uses, although smaller in magnitude, have more than tripled since 1990. Overall, California’s total GHG emissions were 2% higher than 1990 levels as of 2015.

In 2016, CARB released a scoping plan for the 2030 target that involved continuing existing programs such as the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program and the state’s renewables portfolio standard. The LCFS program aims to increase the use of biofuels in the transportation sector. California’s renewables portfolio standard sets targets for specific technologies used to generate electricity in the state. The transportation and electric power sectors are the two largest sources of California’s emissions, responsible for 37% and 19% of the state’s GHG emissions, respectively, in 2015.

California’s emissions cap-and-trade program, launched in 2013, is one of the major policies the state is using to lower its greenhouse gas emissions. In 2015, CARB recommended tightening the program, which would reduce the amount of available emissions credits. Other recommendations from CARB include new regulations that would affect petroleum refinery emissions and double energy efficiency savings by 2030, for example.

Under the current cap-and-trade program, affected emissions sources include electric generators, industrial facilities, and oil and natural gas distributors. Companies in the compliance program have the option to either purchase allowances or directly reduce their emissions. Companies also have the option to finance carbon offset credits, which are earned under a separate program for voluntary projects that lower overall GHG emissions.

In the first auction since the passage of AB 398, allowance prices rose from $13.57 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) for May 2017 to $14.67 per metric ton in subsequent auctions for November 2017. AB 398 established new authority for the ARB to create a CO2 allowance price ceiling, set rules for the banking of allowances, and transfer unsold current vintage allowances to a reserve. California’s next auction is scheduled for February 21, 2018.

In addition to its efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the legislative package seeks to reduce other pollutants. A related bill, AB 617, aims to reduce community-level air pollution from criteria pollutants such as particulates, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide emitted by large stationary sources. This bill authorizes CARB to establish a statewide system that consults with local air districts responsible for monitoring air pollution, and it develops a statewide strategy that approves programs that reduce community emissions.


California finds widespread water contamination of ‘forever chemicals’

Nearly 300 drinking water wells and other water sources in California have traces of toxic chemicals linked to cancer, new state testing has found.

Testing conducted this year of more than 600 wells across the state revealed pockets of contamination, where chemicals widely used for decades in manufacturing and household goods have seeped into the public’s water supply. An analysis by the Los Angeles Times found that within this class of chemicals, called perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, the two most common compounds were detected in 86 water systems that serve up to 9 million Californians.

State officials released the water quality results on Monday, the first step in what’s likely to be a years-long effort to track the scale of the contamination and pinpoint its sources. Only a small fraction of California’s thousands of drinking water wells were tested in this initial study. Officials said they planned to examine many more, but have not committed to future statewide testing.

The results offered the clearest picture yet of California’s exposure to a public health crisis that is playing out nationally.

“This has the potential of being an enormously costly issue both on the health side as well as on the mitigation and regulatory side,” said Kurt Schwabe, an environmental policy professor at UC Riverside. “It’s going to be one of the defining issues in California, environmentally, for decades.”

About half of the wells sampled did not have the chemicals at detectable levels — a result that state officials said was a hopeful sign the contaminants may not have spread as widely as they have in other states. Yet testing found contaminated drinking water in communities across California, from densely-populated cities with large and complex water systems to mobile home parks that depend on a single private well.


California has a housing crisis. A bill would allow a duplex on most single-family parcels

The California Assembly is considering a bill that would require local governments to permit duplexes on parcels now largely restricted to one house, in effect eliminating single-family zoning that dominates in most suburban residential neighborhoods.

The measure, Senate Bill 1120, is pitched as a way to ease a long-running housing shortage that has hammered low- and middle-class families throughout California but is drawing criticism from homeowners concerned it will fundamentally change their neighborhoods.

If ultimately passed by the Legislature and signed into law by Gov. Gavin Newsom, the bill wouldn’t outlaw single-family houses. Instead, property owners could convert their single-family house into a duplex or demolish the house and in its place build two new single-family homes or a duplex.

Property owners could also split a single-family lot into two and then build two additional units, thus placing four homes where there previously was one.

“SB 1120,” said David Garcia, policy director for the Terner Center for Housing Innovation at UC Berkeley, “has the potential to make meaningful progress on our housing challenges.”

The bill isn’t sure to pass and a number of housing bills have failed this year as legislators grapple with the coronavirus. But in many ways California’s housing crisis has only grown worse as millions of people have been thrown out of work.

Economists generally agree the root cause of the state’s exorbitant rents and home prices is that for decades too few homes have been built to satisfy demand, creating a shortage that’s forced people to bid up the cost of housing to find a place to live.

Some haven’t found a place at all and decided to leave the state. In the worst cases, people have ended up in tents and RVs that line the streets.

In addition to expanding supply, which in theory would reduce pressure on housing costs, Garcia said SB 1120 could directly bring more moderately priced housing into neighborhoods, particularly affluent communities that make it difficult to add housing through zoning and other regulations.

The cost of constructing single-family homes and duplexes tends to be lower than stacking many units on top of one another in apartment buildings, he said, creating the potential for new rentals out of SB 1120 that would be cheaper than nearby, recently built apartment complexes.

Because the bill would allow a lot split, property owners could also build another single-family house or duplex — then sell it.

Given the space available to build, Garcia said those new homes are likely to be smaller than the existing home, as well as others in the neighborhood.

“Ideally the smaller, for sale homes will be less expensive,” he said.

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The bill’s author, state Senate President Pro Tem Toni Atkins (D-San Diego), called it a way to increase density and produce “naturally affordable housing options” without public subsidies, while “keeping the character of neighborhoods intact.”

“Put simply, this bill merely permits small-scale additional density without building up or out in neighborhoods,” she said in a statement.

According to Richard Rothstein’s “The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America,” single-family zoning proliferated across the country, in part because of a desire to keep people of color out of white neighborhoods after the U.S. Supreme Court outlawed zoning by race in the early 1900s.

Given the country’s racial wealth gap, critics say single-family zoning still serves as a barrier for people of color to live in certain neighborhoods.

As he’s sagged in the polls, President Trump and his supporters have increasingly tied, without evidence, the ending of single-family zoning to an increase in crime by using language that has a long history in the U.S. of being used as a racist dog whistle to appeal to white suburban voters.

“This forced rezoning would bring crime, lawlessness and low-quality apartments into now thriving suburban neighborhoods,” Patricia McCloskey said Monday at the Republican National Convention, one month after she and her husband were charged with unlawful use of a weapon for waving guns at people outside their house who were protesting racial injustice in the wake of George Floyd’s killing.

Academic research has shown little to no link between subsidized housing and higher crime rates.

Today, single-family neighborhoods in places such as South Los Angeles are mostly home to Black and Latino households, and residents there also want to preserve the single-family character.

Many community groups see SB 1120 as a giveaway to the real estate industry that will obliterate an American ideal, the single-family house, while not helping low-income families hit hardest by the affordability crisis and coronavirus.

The bill doesn’t mandate below market units, and there are concerns it would accelerate gentrification in some Black and Latino communities such as South L.A., where home prices and rents in recent years have risen faster than the region as a whole as wealthier, often white people move in.

John Gonzales, a Baldwin Hills resident and real estate broker involved in local planning issues, said developers are likely to swarm South L.A. and, knowing they can build more units, will pay more for a house than a typical buyer, making it even harder for local families to buy.

Although the new homes may be less expensive, he doubts they will be drastically cheaper and worries the smaller units will be less attractive to some Latino and Black families in the community.

“The local community tends to be multigenerational,” Gonzales said.

Property owners would be prohibited from using SB 1120 if a property has been occupied by a tenant in at least the previous three years, but community groups are concerned such prohibitions aren’t long enough and may be tough to enforce.

Diane Robertson, a Leimert Park resident who, like Gonzales, is a member of South LA Alliance for Locally Planned Growth, said the inclusion of below-market housing would make the bill “less egregious” but there would still be too many problems.

As multiple units replace one, she said, neighborhoods would grow noisier, have less parking and have more renters she sees as less invested in the neighborhood.

“There are many people, in my community here in South Los Angeles, who saved money, desired to be in a nice, single-family neighborhood and purchased their home on that basis,” Robertson said. “Now our legislators are telling us, ‘Well it doesn’t matter what you want.’”

The issue of single-family housing has been hotly debated in recent years across the country, as affordable housing has become a more pressing matter. Minneapolis and Oregon passed laws that end, or nearly end single-family zoning.

Single-family zoning in California has been eroded in recent years by laws governing so-called accessory dwelling units, or ADUs. The new laws have allowed most owners of a single-family house to build a backyard home of at least 800 square feet and convert a portion of their house to a third unit, as long as it wasn’t larger than 500 square feet.

Those units, often called granny flats, are frequently the cheapest new units on the market, according to Zillow advertisements. A 2017 Terner Center study of accessory dwelling units in Seattle, Portland, Ore., and Vancouver, Wash., found the majority of homeowners actually rented their backyard units for less than market rate.

Garcia attributed the lower rent to both relatively low construction costs for the units, as well as the fact construction is frequently undertaken by individual homeowners who probably have less of a profit motive than a traditional developer — something he hopes can be replicated with SB 1120.

The bill would be different from current ADU law in several ways.

Accessory units can’t be sold, except in rare instances. And SB 1120 opens up the possibility of larger homes than ADU laws currently allow, as well as four units where one now stands, rather than three.

Some critics worry property owners could double-dip between ADUs and SB 1120 to put more than four homes on a lot. But according to a legislative staffer, that’s not allowed unless a city allows it.

SB 1120 wouldn’t apply in rural areas and historic districts.

Cities could also apply design standards to new units “unless those standards would have the effect of physically precluding the construction of up to two units,” according to the bill’s current language.

A Terner Center analysis said those design requirements, along with some rules surrounding the size of lots that are split, could reduce the number of homes actually built.

But if owners of just 5% of eligible properties decided to split their lot and build two additional units, it would create nearly 600,000 new homes, according to a Terner Center analysis.

The bill, which was proposed as a more modest step at increasing density than the failed Senate Bill 50, isn’t certain to become law.

Although its author, Atkins, is one of the most powerful leaders in Sacramento, which usually gives bills a leg up, SB 1120 passed out of its last committee in the Assembly with three Democratic abstentions, a sign of potential weakness.

If the bill passes the Assembly it must go back to the Senate because it’s been amended slightly, but must pass both houses by Aug 31. If it does, SB 1120 would then need to be signed into law by Newsom.

If the bill fails, it would be the latest defeat this year for a series of housing production proposals despite promises from both Atkins and Newsom to pass a measure to increase the supply of housing after SB 50 failed in January.

In a news conference last week, Newsom said the COVID-19 pandemic has made it more difficult to pass legislation, but that “we are committed to fast-tracking the development of housing in the state of California.”


Announcements

On February 7, 2018, the State Water Resources Control Board adopted an order revising agricultural requirements for the Eastern San Joaquin River Watershed to reduce nitrate contamination of groundwater and surface water.

Following extensive public comment and expert input, the Order aims to protect communities that rely on groundwater for their drinking water. Nitrate contamination of drinking water is a widespread problem that poses serious public health risks. Nitrates can also have adverse impacts on surface water and aquatic ecosystems.
The Order also directs protections for surface water and groundwater quality from other chemicals, including fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides that may be found in agricultural discharges.

The Order revises waste discharge requirements for the Eastern San Joaquin River Watershed issued by the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board in 2012. The watershed comprises an area of about one million acres of irrigated agriculture in the eastern San Joaquin Valley.

The Order also establishes a model for all regional water boards to follow in their subsequent orders to reduce pollutants from irrigated agriculture around the State. The Order directs the regional water boards to revise their agricultural orders by February 7, 2023 to incorporate testing of drinking water quality for on-farm wells and address the long-term goal of improving groundwater and surface water quality through monitoring and controlling agricultural practices, specifically nitrogen management.

To improve monitoring of nitrogen impacts, the Order directs the regional water boards to require the reporting of nitrogen application to crops from fertilizers, organic soil amendments, and in irrigation water as well as data on nitrogen removed when crops are harvested and taken from the fields.
To protect people presently using on-farm drinking water wells, the Order requires that growers monitor for nitrate levels in on-farm drinking water supply wells and notify the users of those wells if water is found to be above drinking water standards.

Many of the changes the Order incorporates are recommendations from the following: a nitrogen tracking task force and an agricultural expert panel convened as a result of legislation [Chapter 1 of the Second Extraordinary Session of 2008 (SBX2 1, Perata)] a Board-adopted Report to the Legislature that made recommendations on how to address nitrates in drinking water, and the Board&rsquos previous order regarding a petition of the waste discharge requirements for the Eastern San Joaquin River Watershed

Subscribe to our Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program email list to receive notifications and the latest updates. After subscribing, you will need to check your email host for a confirmation email to complete the subscription.

Subscribe to our other email lists. See the "Water Quality" section.


California Bill Aims for Quality Control at Farmers Markets - Recipes

Literature circles or book clubs are small, heterogeneous groups of students who have chosen to read and discuss the same book together. The research on literature circles suggests that they hold great promise for increasing students' enjoyment of reading and honing their literacy skills. When evidence-based strategies are embedded into a…

VIEW OF THE OUTER RING OF CENTER CIRCLE , LOOKING NORTH. GRANITE COPING DEFINES THE SWAIN FAMILY PLOT, WHICH CONTAINS A CELTIC CROSS, ON WHICH THE CIRCLE REFERS TO ETERNAL LIFE, AND A RECLINING HUMAN FIGURE IN ETERNAL SLEEP - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a schedule and approach for the removal of spent fuels, sludge, and debris from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins, located in the 100 Area at the Hanford Site. The project that is the subject of this data quality objective (DQO) process is focused on the removal of debris from the K Basins and onsite disposal of the debris at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material previously has been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) or Central Waste Complex (CWC). The goal of this DQO processmore » and the resulting Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is to provide the strategy for characterizing and designating the K-Basin debris to determine if it meets the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), Revision 3 (BHI 1998). A critical part of the DQO process is to agree on regulatory and WAC interpretation, to support preparation of the DQO workbook and SAP.« less

Smidt, Wilfried Rossbach, Hans-Günther

A large body of research has examined the quality of educational processes in preschools, but it has usually been studied at the group level. Thus, there is a lack of research on the quality of educational processes as experienced by individual children. Therefore, this study investigated the quality of educational processes in preschools at the…

Patwardhan, Ketaki Asgarzadeh, Firouz Dassinger, Thomas Albers, Jessica Repka, Michael A

In this study, the principles of quality by design (QbD) have been uniquely applied to a pharmaceutical melt extrusion process for an immediate release formulation with a low melting model drug, ibuprofen. Two qualitative risk assessment tools - Fishbone diagram and failure mode effect analysis - were utilized to strategically narrow down the most influential parameters. Selected variables were further assessed using a Plackett-Burman screening study, which was upgraded to a response surface design consisting of the critical factors to study the interactions between the study variables. In process torque, glass transition temperature (Tg ) of the extrudates, assay, dissolution and phase change were measured as responses to evaluate the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the extrudates. The effect of each study variable on the measured responses was analysed using multiple regression for the screening design and partial least squares for the optimization design. Experimental limits for formulation and process parameters to attain optimum processing have been outlined. A design space plot describing the domain of experimental variables within which the CQAs remained unchanged was developed. A comprehensive approach for melt extrusion product development based on the QbD methodology has been demonstrated. Drug loading concentrations between 40- 48%w/w and extrusion temperature in the range of 90-130°C were found to be the most optimum. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

This document, which is based on information gathered during a 1998 study of how study circle programs contribute to community problem solving, presents best practices for producing community-wide study circles . The best practices are illustrated through stories that are grouped into five sections on the following themes: (1) creating a…

. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Fastener Quality Act Insignia. Fastener Quality Act of 1999 (FQA), 15 U.S.C. 5401 et seq., certain industrial fasteners must bear an. Quality Act (PTO-1611), which provides manufacturers with a convenient way to [[Page 45541

Landtblom, Anne-Marie Lang, Cecilia Flensner, Gullvi

Objective Patient education plays an important role in the management of chronic diseases that can cause disability and predictable psychosocial problems. Quality of life assessment in multiple sclerosis (MS) has confirmed that psychosocial complications related to working life, marriage/partnership, and the family often occur. Furthermore, symptoms such as fatigue, pain, and sexual dysfunction have a great impact. We wanted to develop and implement study circles to promote the patients’ abilities to meet such common problems and to provide a network where they can be autonomous and develop appropriate strategies in self-care and existential problems. Methods Together with the MS patient organization and a study association, we have arranged study circles for patients with MS, thus providing structured information according to a pedagogic model. The patients are encouraged to work together in groups to learn about the disease and its key symptoms, to develop strategies to master these symptoms in everyday life, and to make necessary changes, ie, self-care management. The programme also contains handicap policies. Results Fifteen study circles with a total of 105 patients started during the first year. Fifteen circle leaders were approved. A focus interview showed that the patients are highly satisfied but also revealed some problems in interactions with health care professionals. The study circles were included in a wider project from a newly started multidisciplinary centre for health education for a variety of chronic diseases causing disability, which aims at becoming a regional interface between the health care system, patient organizations, and educational services. Conclusion The study circles have an important role to play in the management of MS. Good organization is required to make such a project work since health care services do not normally work so closely with patient organizations and educational services. Practice implications Study circles that

Tatàno, Fabio Pagliaro, Giacomo Di Giovanni, Paolo Floriani, Enrico Mangani, Filippo

Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process . Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

Karst, Daniel J Steinebach, Fabian Soos, Miroslav Morbidelli, Massimo

Continuous manufacturing is currently being seriously considered in the biopharmaceutical industry as the possible new paradigm for producing therapeutic proteins, due to production cost and product quality related benefits. In this study, a monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell line was cultured in perfusion mode and connected to a continuous affinity capture step. The reliable and stable integration of the two systems was enabled by suitable control loops, regulating the continuous volumetric flow and adapting the operating conditions of the capture process . For the latter, an at-line HPLC measurement of the harvest concentration subsequent to the bioreactor was combined with a mechanistic model of the capture chromatographic unit. Thereby, optimal buffer consumption and productivity throughout the process was realized while always maintaining a yield above the target value of 99%. Stable operation was achieved at three consecutive viable cell density set points (20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL), together with consistent product quality in terms of aggregates, fragments, charge isoforms, and N-linked glycosylation. In addition, different values for these product quality attributes such as N-linked glycosylation, charge variants, and aggregate content were measured at the different steady states. As expected, the amount of released DNA and HCP was significantly reduced by the capture step for all considered upstream operating conditions. This study is exemplary for the potential of enhancing product quality control and modulation by integrated continuous manufacturing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017114: 298-307. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Vakani, Farhan Saeed O'Beirne, Ronan

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the perspective debates upon the real-time challenges for a three-staged Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI-CME) model, an innovative and potential approach for future CME, to inform providers to think, prepare and to act proactively. In this discussion, the challenges associated for adopting the American Medical Association's three-staged PI-CME model are reported. Not many institutions in USA are using a three-staged performance improvement model and then customizing it to their own healthcare context for the specific targeted audience. They integrate traditional CME methods with performance and quality initiatives, and linking with CME credits. Overall the US health system is interested in a structured PI-CME model with the potential to improve physicians practicing behaviors. Knowing the dearth of evidence for applying this structured performance improvement methodology into the design of CME activities, and the lack of clarity on challenges inherent to the process that learners and providers encounter. This paper establishes all-important first step to render the set of challenges for a three-staged PI-CME model.

Although the aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still not known and the search for causative genes is proving elusive, it is generally agreed that hyperandrogenism is at the heart of the syndrome. Here, it is proposed that excess androgens are the root cause of PCOS starting from their influence on the female fetus in programming gene expression, producing the characteristic signs and symptoms which are then exacerbated by a propagation of excess ovarian androgen production from multiple small follicles, anovulation and insulin resistance in the reproductive life-span, thus setting up a vicious perpetual circle of androgen excess. This opinion paper, rather than being a full-scale review, is intentionally biased in support of this hypothesis that androgen excess is the 'root of all evil' in PCOS in the hope that its acceptance could lead to more direct treatment of the syndrome in all its facets rather than the symptomatic treatment of side effects of androgen excess that we are addressing today.

Yoshimura, Takeo Suzuki, Takamasa Mineki, Shigeru Ohuchi, Shokichi

Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same. PMID:26348227

Over the past decade, there has been a great deal of research dedicated to the study of quality and the economics of production. In this article, we develop a dynamic model which is based on the hypothesis of a traditional economic production quantity model. Taguchi's cost of poor quality is used to evaluate the cost of poor quality in the dynamic production system. A practical case from the automotive industry, which uses the Six-sigma DMAIC methodology, is discussed to verify the proposed model. This study shows that there is an optimal value of quality investment to make the production system reach a reasonable quality level and minimise the production cost. Based on our model, the management can adjust its investment in quality improvement to generate considerable financial return.

Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of

quality is baked into the process or quality must be obtained through testing and correction of deficiencies. Furthermore, the Air Force concluded. that if quality is baked in it comes “for free” but if quality must be inspected or tested in it comes at a cost. As a manager or a leader, it is

Water quality changes along hyporheic flow paths may have
important effects on river water quality and aquatic habitat. Previous
studies on the Willamette River, Oregon, showed that river water follows
hyporheic flow paths through highly porous deposits created by river.

Discussion of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM) assessment tools in educational settings highlights and gives examples of fishbone diagrams, or cause and effect charts Pareto diagrams control charts histograms and check sheets scatter diagrams and flowcharts. Variation and quality are discussed in terms of continuous process…

NOAA and EPA have created an Air Quality Forecast (AQF) system. This AQF system links an adaptation of the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with the 12 kilometer ETA model running operationally at NOAA's National Center for Environmental Predication (NCEP). One of the.

The submittal, review and approval process of the EPA–State process for developing and revising Water Quality Standards (WQS) was the focus of a Lean business process improvement kaizen event in June 2007.

Hollander, Harry Loeser, Helen Irby, David

standardized set of questions and examined course schedules, cases, and detailed learning objectives for particular sessions. In July 2001, the committee reported back to the deans with specific recommendations for coordinating the block courses, and about the success in creating integration and the overall balance of topics students would learn. Specific recommendations included increasing the use of pediatric and geriatric cases across courses, creating a case database, developing explicit plans to relocate uncovered material in the four-year curriculum, and bolstering participation of clinical faculty during the first-year blocks. These recommendations were then presented to and endorsed by the Essential Core Steering Committee, which implemented an action plan prior to the September 2001 start date. This proactive approach to quality improvement added an evaluation point before the new curriculum was actually unveiled. The anticipatory planning process substantially aided the interdisciplinary developmental process , increased input into the first-year curriculum by clerkship directors, and identified problems that would have otherwise become apparent after implementation. We believe this model adds value to the curriculum planning process .

American post-secondary education faces unprecedented challenges in the dynamic 21st century environment. An appreciation of the higher education accreditation process , as a quality control mechanism, therefore may be seen as a significant priority. When American higher education is viewed systemically, the perceptions of quality held and…

7. Front facade of main entrance, A-wing, Minuteman circle looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

6. Three-quarter view of A-wing, building 500, from Minuteman Circle looking northeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

OUTER RIM OF CIRCLE , WITH LIVE OAK TREE AT LEFT FOREGROUND AND CEMETERY SECTION 25 IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO WEST. - Barrancas National Cemetery, Naval Air Station, 80 Hovey Road, Pensacola, Escambia County, FL

12. VISTA SOUTHWEST ON NEW HAMPSHIRE AVENUE TO WASHINGTON CIRCLE FROM RESERVATION NO. 140 AT THE INTERSECTION OF NEW HAMPSHIRE AVENUE, M, AND 21ST STREETS, NW. - New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

View of Building No. 405 from Staff Circle , facing north - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

Officers quarters around staff circle , with building 44 in right foreground and right to left, buildings 42 through 38 in background. View to west. - Fort David A. Russell, Randall Avenue west of First Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

Officers quarters around staff circle , with building 47 in left foreground and left to right, buildings 48 through 52 in background. View to southeast. - Fort David A. Russell, Randall Avenue west of First Street, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

This study deals with the development of a credible and valid simulation model of the Collingwood, : Brooklawn, and Asbury traffic circles in New Jersey. These simulation models are used to evaluate : various geometric and operational improvement alt.

ego-network. We expect that circles are formed by densely-connected sets of alters ( Newman , 2006). However, different circles overlap heavily, i.e. umbrella of community detection (Lancichinetti and Fortunato, 2009a Schaeffer, 2007 Leskovec et al., 2010 Porter et al., 2009 Newman , 2004). While. MCMC) sampler ( Newman and Barkema, 1999) which efficiently updates node-community memberships by ‘collapsing’ nodes that have common features and

Procedures and experiences concerning the implementation of quality management in a midsize hospital with 6 medical disciplines are described. Quality of infrastructure was checked with lists and the quality of medical performance assessed by means of standardized numerical audit with all professional groups. Weaknesses were identified by comparing the result to each quality indicator with target standards. As examples, causal relations and consequences of deficiencies in clinical care documentation, scheme of preoperative diagnosis, co-ordination of surgical procedures and handling of complications are given in more detail. Obstacles were rated depending on frequency and risk potential, sometimes cost effectiveness. Members of all professional groups and departments involved participated in trouble solving teams to which external expert assistance was provided. For example, interventions leading to improved co-ordination of surgical activities and their impacts are specified. Improving systematically the quality of clinical procedures is one gateway to establish quality management in hospitals continuously and thoroughly becoming an integrated part of the corporate culture. Investment of resources is necessary but justified by midrange benefits.

Many studies showed that enormous students got confused about the concepts of measuring area of circles . The main reason is because mathematics classroom practices emphasized on memorizing formulas rather than understanding concepts. Therefore, in this study, a set of learning activities were designed as an innovation in learning area measurement of circles . The activities involved two models namely grid paper and reshaping which are respectively as a means and a strategy to support students’ learning of area measurement of circles . Design research was used as the research approach to achieve the aim. Thirty-eight of 8th graders in Indonesia were involved in this study. In this study, together with the contextual problems, the grid paper and reshaping sectors, which used as the models in this learning, helped the students to gradually develop their understanding of the area measurement of circles . The grid papers plays important role in comparing and estimating areas. Whereas, the reshaping sectors might support students’ understanding of the circumference and the area measurement of circles . Those two models could be the tool for promoting the informal theory of area measurement. Besides, the whole activities gave important role on distinguishing the area and perimeter of circles .

Bates, Andrew Williams, Dominic Wilson, Chris Wilson, Robin J

This article describes the first 10 years of the implementation of Circles of Support and Accountability ( Circles ) in the management of sexual offenders in South-East England by Circles South East (CSE). The Circles of 71 core members are reviewed in detail, with reference to demographic data, offense and sentencing histories, risk assessment data, and considerations regarding Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. A group of 71 comparison subjects who were referred to CSE and deemed suitable for but did not receive the service was identified. Follow-up behaviors of both groups are examined (including all forms of reconviction, breach of orders, and prison recall). Over a comparable follow-up period of 55 months, the incidence of violent and contact sexual reconviction in the comparison group was significantly higher than for the Circles cohort. Comparisons are made between expected and actual levels of sexual reconviction, with the Circles cohort showing lower than expected rate of sexual reconviction but not to a statistically significant degree. © The Author(s) 2013.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a process -oriented lifecycle model for ensuring quality in e-learning development and delivery. As a dynamic and iterative process , quality assurance (QA) is intertwined with the e-learning development process . Design/methodology/approach: After reviewing the existing literature, particularly…

. 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance- processing quality . Northern potato crop insurance— processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance. Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing potatoes.

. 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance- processing quality . Northern potato crop insurance— processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance. Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing potatoes.

. 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance- processing quality . Northern potato crop insurance— processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance. Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing potatoes.

. 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance- processing quality . Northern potato crop insurance— processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance. Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing potatoes.

Martini, Markus Pinggera, Jakob Neurauter, Manuel Sachse, Pierre Furtner, Marco R Weber, Barbara

A process model (PM) represents the graphical depiction of a business process , for instance, the entire process from online ordering a book until the parcel is delivered to the customer. Knowledge about relevant factors for creating PMs of high quality is lacking. The present study investigated the role of cognitive processes as well as modelling processes in creating a PM in experienced and inexperienced modellers. Specifically, two working memory (WM) functions (holding and processing of information and relational integration) and three process of process modelling phases (comprehension, modelling, and reconciliation) were related to PM quality . Our results show that the WM function of relational integration was positively related to PM quality in both modelling groups. The ratio of comprehension phases was negatively related to PM quality in inexperienced modellers and the ratio of reconciliation phases was positively related to PM quality in experienced modellers. Our research reveals central cognitive mechanisms in process modelling and has potential practical implications for the development of modelling software and teaching the craft of process modelling.

Koga, Tsuyoshi Aoyama, Kazuhiro

This paper proposes a representation model of the quality state change in an assembly process that can be used in a computer-aided process design system. In order to formalize the state change of the manufacturing quality in the assembly process , the functions, operations, and quality changes in the assembly process are represented as a network model that can simulate discrete events. This paper also develops a design method for the assembly process . The design method calculates the space of quality state change and outputs a better assembly process (better operations and better sequences) that can be used to obtain the intended quality state of the final product. A computational redesigning algorithm of the assembly process that considers the manufacturing quality is developed. The proposed method can be used to design an improved manufacturing process by simulating the quality state change. A prototype system for planning an assembly process is implemented and applied to the design of an auto-breaker assembly process . The result of the design example indicates that the proposed assembly process planning method outputs a better manufacturing scenario based on the simulation of the quality state change.

If production of gasoline from coal becomes commercially attractive in the United States, a process under development at the Mobil Research and Development Corp. may compete with better known coal liquefaction processes . Mobil process converts methanol to high-octane, unleaded gasoline methanol can be produced commercially from coal. If gasoline is the desired product, the Mobil process offers strong technical and cost advantages over H-coal, Exxon donor solvent, solvent-refined coal, and Fischer--Tropsch processes . The cost analysis, contained in a report to the Dept. of Energy, concludes that the Mobil process produces more-expensive liquid products than any other liquefaction process except Fischer--Tropsch.more » But Mobil's process produces ready-to-use gasoline, while the others produce oils which require further expensive refining to yield gasoline. Disadvantages and advantages are discussed.« less

Yang, Ming Yang, Yuan-Zhen Wang, Ya-Qi Wu, Zhen-Feng Wang, Xue-Cheng Luo, Jing

Product quality relies on not only testing methods,but also the design and development, production control and product manufacturing all aspects of logistics management. Quality comes from the process control level.Therefore, it is very important to accurately identify the factors that may induce quality risk in the production process and quality control measures correspondingly.This article systematically analyzes the source of the quality risk of all aspects of the production process in traditional Chinese medicine preparation. Discussing ways and methods of quality risk identification of traditional Chinese medicine preparation and providing references for perfecting the whole process quality management of traditional Chinese medicine preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

English learners have more access to communicate with different purposeful audiences across the Three Concentric Circles of English (Kachu, 1985): the Inner Circle , the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle . However, young language learners' purposeful audience as a focus of communication has not been emphasized as much as other linguistic…

Cruz, Francisco José Fernández Gálvez, Inmaculada Egido Santaolalla, Rafael Carballo

Purpose: Quality management systems are being used more frequently in educational institutions, although their application has generated a certain amount of disagreement among education experts, who have at times questioned their suitability and usefulness for improving schools. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this discussion by…

Instrument automatically and nondestructively monitors the quality of welds produced in microresistance welding. It measures the infrared energy generated in the weld as the weld is made and compares this energy with maximum and minimum limits of infrared energy values previously correlated with acceptable weld-strength tolerances.

Hanzah, Muhammad Radhi bin Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd Khor, C. Y. Ishak, Muhammad Ikman Rosli, M. U. Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan Zakaria, M. S. Nawi, M. A. M.

This study was regulated exclusively in view of theoretical aspect and further research should be done to demonstrate it in the genuine circumstance. The structure of this investigation including two industrial visits, i.e. interviews and meeting with approved staff from each organization agents. This review is cut up into two sections. Aside from the perception, little gatherings with the staffs from both organizations are held. With the subtle elements, the review is begun up. The aim of the study is characterized as to enhance the assessment strategy at quality control station to minimize defect outflow to the following client. This is to investigate the underlying factor in ebb and flow quality control framework so that another strategy to enhance quality control framework can implemented. Quality is a basic characteristic to be instated so that the end goal to fulfill clients' need is achieved. After a long hypothetical review is made, the best answer for be actualized at QG station to beat defects outflow to the following customer is by photoelectric sensor. It is reasonable, simple to keep up and has a high affectability to identify the defective items at the QG station.

The methods whereby the intermediate results were obtained are outlined, and the evaluation of the feasible paths from liquid fossil fuel sources to generated electricity is presented. The segments from which these paths were built are the results from the fuel upgrading schemes, on-site treatments, and exhaust gas treatments detailed in the subsequent volumes. The salient cost and quality parameters are included.

Tempesta, Daniela De Gennaro, Luigi Natale, Vincenzo Ferrara, Michele

The recall of emotional memory is enhanced after sleep and is hindered by sleep deprivation. We used an emotional memory task to assess whether poor sleep quality , as well as sleep deprivation, may influence the accuracy of memory recognition, but also the affective tone associated with the memory. Seventy-five subjects, divided into poor sleeper (PS), good sleeper (GS), and sleep deprivation (SD) groups, completed two recall (R) sessions: R1, 1 h after the encoding phase and R2, after one night of sleep for PS and GS groups and after one night of sleep deprivation for the SD group. During the encoding phase, the participants rated valence and arousal of 90 pictures. During R1 and R2, the participants first made a yes/no memory judgment of the 45 target pictures intermingled with 30 non-target pictures, then rated valence and arousal of each picture. Recognition accuracy was higher for the PS and GS groups compared to the SD group for all pictures. Emotional valence of the remembered pictures was more negative after sleep deprivation and poor quality sleep, while it was preserved after a good sleep. These results provide the first evidence that poor sleep quality negatively affects emotional valence of memories, within the context of preserved emotional memory consolidation. It is suggested that low sleep quality and lack of sleep may impose a more negative affective tone to memories. The reported effects are not to be ascribed to depressive mood, but to a specific influence of poor sleep quality . Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cornwell, Brittany Villamor, Eduardo Mora-Plazas, Mercedes Marin, Constanza Monteiro, Carlos A Baylin, Ana

To determine if processed and ultra- processed foods consumed by children in Colombia are associated with lower- quality nutrition profiles than less processed foods. We obtained information on sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and dietary information through dietary records and 24 h recalls from a convenience sample of the Bogotá School Children Cohort. Foods were classified into three categories: (i) unprocessed and minimally processed foods, (ii) processed culinary ingredients and (iii) processed and ultra- processed foods. We also examined the combination of unprocessed foods and processed culinary ingredients. Representative sample of children from low- to middle-income families in Bogotá, Colombia. Children aged 5-12 years in 2011 Bogotá School Children Cohort. We found that processed and ultra- processed foods are of lower dietary quality in general. Nutrients that were lower in processed and ultra- processed foods following adjustment for total energy intake included: n-3 PUFA, vitamins A, B12, C and E, Ca and Zn. Nutrients that were higher in energy-adjusted processed and ultra- processed foods compared with unprocessed foods included: Na, sugar and trans-fatty acids, although we also found that some healthy nutrients, including folate and Fe, were higher in processed and ultra- processed foods compared with unprocessed and minimally processed foods. Processed and ultra- processed foods generally have unhealthy nutrition profiles. Our findings suggest the categorization of foods based on processing characteristics is promising for understanding the influence of food processing on children's dietary quality . More studies accounting for the type and degree of food processing are needed.

Hodgkinson, Myra Kelly, Mike

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide insights into the processes that can be and have been adopted by UK business schools as they attempt to meet the Quality Assurance Agency's concern with the standard of quality management and enhancement. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature provides interpretations of quality ,…

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SERVICE AND SECURITY OF MILITARY NETWORKS WITH A NETWORK TASKING ORDER. United States. AFIT/DCS/ENG/10-09 IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SERVICE AND SECURITY OF MILITARY NETWORKS WITH A NETWORK TASKING ORDER PROCESS . USAF September 2010 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT/DCS/ENG/10-09 IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SERVICE AND

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QbD) and describe how it can be used to ensure pharmaceutical quality . The QbD was described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes were identified for each unit operation during manufacture of solid oral dosage forms. The use of QbD was contrasted with the evaluation of product quality by testing alone. The QbD is a systemic approach to pharmaceutical development. It means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality . Some of the QbD elements include: Defining target product quality profile Designing product and manufacturing processes Identifying critical quality attributes, process parameters, and sources of variability Controlling manufacturing processes to produce consistent quality over time. Using QbD, pharmaceutical quality is assured by understanding and controlling formulation and manufacturing variables. Product testing confirms the product quality . Implementation of QbD will enable transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) into a science-based pharmaceutical quality assessment.

Oliva, Diego Díaz, Margarita Zaldivar, Daniel Pérez-Cisneros, Marco Pajares, Gonzalo

Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

Cuevas, Erik Oliva, Diego Díaz, Margarita Zaldivar, Daniel Pérez-Cisneros, Marco Pajares, Gonzalo

Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability.

The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the problems of quality control in mammography and processors units as a diagnosis of the current situation of mammography facilities. Measurements of reproducibility, optical density, optical difference and gamma index are included. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Mexican Republic. Mammography is a radiographic examination specially designed for detecting breast pathology. We found that the problems of reproducibility of AEC are smaller than the problems of processors units because almost all processors fall outside of the acceptable variation limits and they can affect the mammography quality image and the dose to breast. Only four mammography units agree with the minimum score established by ACR and FDA for the phantom image.

The available evidence indicates that patent quality , particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software.

Rules on the reprocessing of medical devices were put into place in Germany in 2001. The present article explains the background situation and the provisions that are currently in force. The implementation of these statutory requirements is described using the example of the quality management system of Germany’s market leader, Vanguard AG. This quality management system was successfully certified pursuant to DIN EN ISO 13485:2003 for the scope "reprocessing of medical devices", including class “critical C”, in accordance with the recommendation of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and the Prevention of Infection at the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) on the “Hygiene requirements for reprocessing of medical devices”. PMID:20204094

The available evidence indicates that patent quality , particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software. PMID:25221346

Carlson, Richard O Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah Hernandez, James S

In today's environment, many laboratories and pathology practices are challenged to maintain or increase their quality while simultaneously lowering their overall costs. The cost of improving specimen processes is related to quality , and we demonstrate that actual costs can be reduced by designing " quality at the source" into the processes . Various costs are hidden along the total testing process , and we suggest ways to identify opportunities to reduce cost by improving quality in laboratories and pathology practices through the use of Lean, Six Sigma, and industrial engineering.

Karami, Ebrahim Shehata, Mohamed S Smith, Andrew

Medical research suggests that the anterior-posterior (AP)-diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and its associated temporal variation as imaged by bedside ultrasound is useful in guiding fluid resuscitation of the critically-ill patient. Unfortunately, indistinct edges and gaps in vessel walls are frequently present which impede accurate estimation of the IVC AP-diameter for both human operators and segmentation algorithms. The majority of research involving use of the IVC to guide fluid resuscitation involves manual measurement of the maximum and minimum AP-diameter as it varies over time. This effort proposes using a time-varying circle fitted inside the typically ellipsoid IVC as an efficient, consistent and novel approach to tracking and approximating the AP-diameter even in the context of poor image quality . In this active- circle algorithm, a novel evolution functional is proposed and shown to be a useful tool for ultrasound image processing . The proposed algorithm is compared with an expert manual measurement, and state-of-the-art relevant algorithms. It is shown that the algorithm outperforms other techniques and performs very close to manual measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Engineering and Economics Research (EER), Inc. under NASA Contract Number NAS5-27513. The study involved the development of preliminary concepts for automatic and semiautomatic quality assurance (QA) techniques for ground image processing . A distinction is made between quality assessment and the more comprehensive quality assurance which includes decision making and system feedback control in response to quality assessment.

Strathclyde Regional Council, Glasgow (Scotland).

This guide describes a quality process for external and internal evaluation of the elementary school education department. The term "pathway" is used to define routes through the quality process that describe any school administrative activity in terms of the indicators and examples of good practice. There are five pathways: process…

Tietze, Wolfgang Cryer, Debby

Observed process quality in infant/toddler classrooms was compared in Germany (n = 75) and the USA (n = 219). Process quality was assessed with the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale(ITERS) and parent attitudes about ITERS content with the ITERS Parent Questionnaire (ITERSPQ). The ITERS had comparable reliabilities in the two countries and…

This research was carried out to determine technology barriers faced by the instructors within the framework of quality processes conducted at the University of Sakarya.Therefore, technology barriers encountered in the process of teaching while using web sites developed in order to manage quality operations from a single center were examined…

Jaswar, Maimun, A. Wahid, M. A. Priyanto, A. Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

Many factors such as: stern hull shape, length, draught, trim, propulsion system and external forces affecting the drift angle influence rate of turn and size of turning circle of ships. This paper discusses turning circle characteristics of U and V stern hull shape of Very Large Crude Oil Carrier (VLCC) ships. The ships have same principal dimension such as length, beam, and draught. The turning circle characteristics of the VLCC ships are simulated at 35 degree of rudder angle. In the analysis, firstly, turning circle performance of U-type VLCC ship is simulated. In the simulation, initial ship speed is determined using given power and rpm. Hydrodynamic derivatives coefficients are determined by including effect of fullness of aft run. Using the obtained, speed and hydrodynamic coefficients, force and moment acting on hull, force and moment induced by propeller, force and moment induced by rudder are determined. Finally, ship trajectory, ratio of speed, yaw angle and drift angle are determined. Results of simulation results of the VLCC ship are compared with the experimental one as validation. Using the same method, V-type VLCC is simulated and the simulation results are compared with U-type VLCC ship. Results shows the turning circle of U-type is larger than V-type due to effect stern hul results of simulation are.

Dong, Ling Sun, Yu Pei, Wen-Xuan Dai, Jun-Dong Wang, Zi-Yu Pan, Meng Chen, Jiang-Peng Wang, Yun

The concept of " Quality by design" indicates that good design for the whole life cycle of pharmaceutical production enables the drug to meet the expected quality requirements. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industry, the TCM standardization system was put forward in this paper from the national strategic level, under the guidance by the idea of quality control in international manufacturing industry and with considerations of TCM industry's own characteristics and development status. The connotation of this strategy was to establish five interrelated systems: multi-indicators system based on tri-indicators system, quality standard and specification system of TCM herbal materials and decoction pieces, quality traceability system, data monitoring system based on whole- process quality control, and whole- process quality management system of TCM, and achieve the whole process systematic and scientific study in TCM industry through "top-level design-implement in steps-system integration" workflow. This article analyzed the correlation between the quality standards of all links, established standard operating procedures of each link and whole process , and constructed a high standard overall quality management system for TCM industry chains, in order to provide a demonstration for the establishment of TCM whole- process quality control system and provide systematic reference and basis for standardization strategy in TCM industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

Weir, Charlene Gibson, Bryan Taft, Teresa Slager, Stacey Lewis, Lacey Staggers, Nancy

Delirium is a fluctuating disturbance of cognition and/or consciousness associated with poor outcomes. Caring for patients with delirium requires integration of disparate information across clinicians, settings and time. The goal of this project was to characterize the information processes involved in nurses’ assessment, documentation, decisionmaking and communication regarding patients’ mental status in the inpatient setting. VA nurse managers of medical wards (n=18) were systematically selected across the US. A semi-structured telephone interview focused on current assessment, documentation, and communication processes , as well as clinical and administrative decision-making was conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. A thematic analytic approach was used. Five themes emerged: 1) Fuzzy Concepts, 2) Grey Data, 3) Process Variability 4) Context is Critical and 5) Goal Conflict. This project describes the vague and variable information processes related to delirium and mental status that undermine effective risk, prevention, identification, communication and mitigation of harm. PMID:28269919

Weir, Charlene Gibson, Bryan Taft, Teresa Slager, Stacey Lewis, Lacey Staggers, Nancy

Delirium is a fluctuating disturbance of cognition and/or consciousness associated with poor outcomes. Caring for patients with delirium requires integration of disparate information across clinicians, settings and time. The goal of this project was to characterize the information processes involved in nurses' assessment, documentation, decisionmaking and communication regarding patients' mental status in the inpatient setting. VA nurse managers of medical wards (n=18) were systematically selected across the US. A semi-structured telephone interview focused on current assessment, documentation, and communication processes , as well as clinical and administrative decision-making was conducted, audio-recorded and transcribed. A thematic analytic approach was used. Five themes emerged: 1) Fuzzy Concepts, 2) Grey Data, 3) Process Variability 4) Context is Critical and 5) Goal Conflict. This project describes the vague and variable information processes related to delirium and mental status that undermine effective risk, prevention, identification, communication and mitigation of harm.

Ferreira, M. J. O. Neves, J. A. C.

This paper describes an application of image processing for the furniture industry. It uses an input data, images acquired directly from wood planks where defects were previously marked by an operator. A set of image processing algorithms separates and codes each defect and detects a polygonal approach of the line representing them. For such a purpose we developed a pattern classification algorithm and a new technique of segmenting defects by carving the convex hull of the binary shape representing each isolated defect.

Nilsson, Petra Blomqvist, Kerstin

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how healthcare first-line managers think about and act regarding workplace survey processes . Design/methodology/approach This interview study was performed at a hospital in south Sweden. First-line healthcare managers ( n=24) volunteered. The analysis was inspired by phenomenography, which aims to describe the ways in which different people experience a phenomenon. The phenomenon was a workplace health promotion (WHP) survey processes . Findings Four main WHP survey process approaches were identified among the managers: as a possibility, as a competition, as a work task among others and as an imposition. For each, three common subcategories emerged how managers: stated challenges and support from hospital management described their own work group and collaboration with other managers and expressed themselves and their situation in their roles as first-line managers. Practical implications Insights into how hospital management can understand their first-line managers' motivation for survey processes and practical suggestions and how managers can work proactively at organizational, group and individual level are presented. Originality/value Usually these studies focus on those who should respond to a survey not those who should run the survey process . Focusing on managers and not co-workers can lead to more committed and empowered managers and thereby success in survey processes .

Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes . The study employs exploratory and descriptive design, with quantitative approach and purposive sampling using self-administrated questionnaires, were obtained from 30 smallholder respondents from the Southern Region, Peninsular Malaysia. The study reveals that there was a convincing relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes . The main handling process factors influencing quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) were harvesting activity and handling at the plantation area. As a result, it can be deduced that the handling process factors variable explains 82.80% of the variance that reflects the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The overall findings reveal that the handling process factors do play a significant role in the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB).

Seung, Eulsun Choi, Aeran Pestel, Beverly

We have developed a process -oriented chemistry laboratory curriculum for non-science majors. The purpose of this study is both to explore university students' understanding of chemistry processes and to evaluate the quality of evidence students use to support their claims regarding chemistry processes in a process -oriented chemistry laboratory…

Kaiser Permanente's Georgia Region commissioned a quality planning team to design a new process to improve payments to its suppliers and vendors. The result of the team's effort was a 73 percent reduction in cycle time. This team's experiences point to the advantages of process redesign as a quality planning model, as well as some general guidelines for its most effective use in teams. If quality planning project teams are carefully configured, sufficiently expert in the existing process , and properly supported by management, organizations can achieve potentially dramatic improvements in process performance using this approach.

Sensakovic, William F O'Dell, M Cody Letter, Haley Kohler, Nathan Rop, Baiywo Cook, Jane Logsdon, Gregory Varich, Laura

Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image- processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality . We further hypothesize that image- quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image- processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI and MUSICA(2) by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image- quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE- processed images and Agfa- processed images with equivalent image quality . A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa- processed image- quality ratings were higher than GE- processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE- processed images than for Agfa- processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE- processed images and Agfa- processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv P processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality . These image- quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image- processing software should be aware that image

Chaiken, Barry P Christian, Charles E Johnson, Liz

Today, healthcare annually invests billions of dollars in information technology, including clinical systems, electronic medical records and interoperability platforms. While continued investment and parallel development of standards are critical to secure exponential benefits from clinical information technology, intelligent and creative redesign of processes through path innovation is necessary to deliver meaningful value. Reports from two organizations included in this report review the steps taken to reinvent clinical processes that best leverage information technology to deliver safer and more efficient care. Good Samaritan Hospital, Vincennes, Indiana, implemented electronic charting, point-of-care bar coding of medications prior to administration, and integrated clinical documentation for nursing, laboratory, radiology and pharmacy. Tenet Healthcare, during its implementation and deployment of multiple clinical systems across several hospitals, focused on planning that included team-based process redesign. In addition, Tenet constructed valuable and measurable metrics that link outcomes with its strategic goals.

The circle of Apollonius is named after the ancient geometrician Apollonius of Perga. This beautiful geometric construct can be helpful when solving some general problems of geometry and mathematical physics, optics, and electricity. Here we discuss two of its applications: localizing an object in space and calculating electric fields. First, we pose an entertaining localization problem to trigger students' interest in the subject. Analyzing this problem, we introduce the circle of Apollonius and show that this geometric technique helps solve the problem in an elegant and intuitive manner. Then we switch to seemingly unrelated problems of calculating the electric fields. We show that the zero equipotential line for two unlike charges is the Apollonius circle for these two charges and use this discovery to find the electric field of a charge positioned near a grounded conductive sphere. Finally, we pose some questions for further examination.

Walker, Rachel Henderson, Amanda Cooke, Marie Creedy, Debra

Partnerships between university schools of nursing and health services lead to successful learning experiences for students and staff. A purposive sample of academics and students from a university school of nursing and clinicians from three health institutions involved in clinical learning (n=73) actively participated in a learning circles intervention conducted over 5 months in south east Queensland. Learning circle discussions resulted in enhanced communication and shared understanding regarding: (1) staff attitudes towards students, expectations and student assessment (2) strategies enhancing preparation of students, mechanisms for greater support of and recognition of clinicians (3) challenges faced by staff in the complex processes of leadership in clinical nursing education (4) construction of learning, ideas for improving communication, networking and sharing and (5) questioning routine practices that may not enhance student learning. Pre-post surveys of hospital staff (n=310) revealed significant differences across three sub-scales of 'accomplishment' (t=-3.98, p circles can positively enhance organisational learning culture. The intervention enabled participants to recognise mutual goals. Further investigation around staff perception of their influence on their workplace is required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rothe, J P Ozegovic, D Carroll, L J

There is growing recognition that different research approaches are necessary to understand the complex interaction between individual and social processes that contribute to risk-taking and injuries. Therefore, qualitative studies have an important role in injury prevention research. This article describes qualitative research in general and outlines some of the ways qualitative research can add to our understanding of injury. It also describes the role, format and methods of interviews (person-to-person and focus groups) commonly performed in qualitative studies, and proposes a novel approach to interviewing that has special relevance and value in injury research with indigenous populations. This methodology adapts focus group methods to be consistent with the goals and procedures of the traditional First Nations communities' Sharing Circles . This adaptation provides a culturally appropriate and sensitive method of developing a deep and broad understanding of indigenous participants' verbal descriptions of their feelings, their experiences and their modes of reasoning. After detailing of this adaptation of the Sharing Circle as a vibrant and vital interview and analysis method, the use of Sharing Circle interview methodology will be illustrated in a study investigating how an Alberta First Nations community experiences and deals with disproportionate levels of injuries arising from impaired driving, outlining important findings uncovered using this novel interviewing method. These findings have been informative to First Nations communities themselves, have informed policy makers provincially and nationally, and have instigated culturally appropriate intervention techniques for Canadian First Nations communities.

Garcia, Andrea Baethke, Lisa Kaur, Judith S

Cancer is now the second leading cause of death among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIAN), and trends in cancer-related mortality over the past 2 decades show inferior control in AIAN compared to non-Hispanic Whites. The American Indian/Alaska Native Cancer Information Resource Center and Learning Exchange (Native C.I.R.C.L.E .) was developed in the year 2000 as part of a comprehensive network of partnerships to develop, maintain, and disseminate culturally appropriate cancer and other health information materials for AIAN educators and providers. Now, in its 15th year of existence, enough data has been accumulated by Native C.I.R.C.L.E . to analyze trends in the distribution of culturally relevant cancer information materials and compare access to both printed (hard copy) and online materials. The amount of culturally appropriate materials available since its creation has increased more than 10-fold. Print materials are now distributed throughout the world, and the number of materials requested from print and downloads combined are in the thousands on a monthly basis. Native C.I.R.C.L.E . is in the process of expanding its access and capabilities to target more of the lay AIAN public in order to address the digital divide.

Ardakani, Shahab Kamali Dadmehr, Majid Nejat, Farideh Ansari, Saeed Eftekhar, Behzad Tajik, Parvin El Khashab, Mostafa Yazdani, Shahrooz Ghodsi, Mohammad Mahjoub, Fatemeh Monajemzadeh, Maryam Nazparvar, Bashir Abdi-Rad, Afshin

Many studies have investigated the variations in the anatomy of each segment of the cerebral arterial circle while a few have addressed the variations of the cerebral arterial circle as a whole. Thirty brains of recently deceased Iranian infants and fetuses were dissected. The dissection process was filmed and digitized so as to be readily available for further studies. The variations of the circle as a whole and segmental variations were evaluated. Variants with uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of posterior communicating arteries (PcoAs) were the most common in our study, similar to previous works. No aplasia of the precommunicating part of the anterior cerebral artery (A1), the precommunicating part of the posterior cerebral artery (P1) and anterior communicating artery was seen. Hypoplasia of the right and left PcoA was observed in 8 and 5 cases, respectively. Aplasia of the right PcoA was found in 16.6% and of the left PcoA in 3.3%. In this study, we confirmed the previously described finding that the symmetrical, circular configuration of the circulus arteriosus cerebri is present in only about 42.1%. The main differences between the fetal and adult disposition are the diameter of the PcoA and the circular part of the posterior cerebral artery. According to previous studies, the fetal brain older than 4 months has anatomical characteristics very similar to the adult's circle our finding was mostly similar to adult samples as most samples were from infants, not fetuses. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor) Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor) Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

Lettuce is increasingly consumed as minimally processed salads. Cultivars grown for this market may require breeding for improved shelf-life and resistance to physiological defects such as tipburn (TB). Tipburn is a calcium deficiency related defect causing necrosis on the leaf margins, typically on.

A subset of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methodology known as Control Charting is introduced. SPC methodology is a collection of graphical and inferential statistics techniques used to study the progress of phenomena over time. The types of control charts covered are the null X (mean), R (Range), X (individual observations), MR (moving…

Jones, G. E., Jr. Amero, R. Murthy, B. Cutrone, M.

The validity of initial assumptions about raw materials choices and relevant upgrading processing options was confirmed. The literature survey also served to define the on-site (at the turbine location) options for fuel treatment and exhaust gas treatment. The literature survey also contains a substantial compilation of specification and physical property information about liquid fuel products relevant to industrial gas turbines.

Bolt Circle Calculation (BOLT-CALC) computer program used to reduce significant time consumed in manually computing trigonometry of rectangular Cartesian coordinates of holes in bolt circle as shown on blueprint or drawing. Eliminates risk of computational errors, particularly in cases involving many holes or in cases in which coordinates expressed to many significant digits. Program assists in many practical situations arising in machine shops. Written in BASIC. Also successfully compiled and implemented by use of Microsoft's QuickBasic v4.0.

Yang, Fan Du, Zhengchun Yang, Jiangguo Hong, Maisheng

Geometric motion error measurement has been considered as an important task for accuracy enhancement and quality assurance of NC machine tools and CMMs. In consideration of the disadvantages of traditional measuring methods,a new measuring method for motion accuracy of 3-axis NC equipments based on composite trajectory including circle and non- circle (straight line and/or polygonal line) is proposed. The principles and techniques of the new measuring method are discussed in detail. 8 feasible measuring strategies based on different measuring groupings are summarized and optimized. The experiment of the most preferable strategy is carried out on the 3-axis CNC vertical machining center Cincinnati 750 Arrow by using cross grid encoder. The whole measuring time of 21 error components of the new method is cut down to 1-2 h because of easy installation, adjustment, operation and the characteristics of non-contact measurement. Result shows that the new method is suitable for `on machine" measurement and has good prospects of wide application.

Seidel, Kathrin Kahl, Johannes Paoletti, Flavio Birlouez, Ines Busscher, Nicolaas Kretzschmar, Ursula Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo Seljåsen, Randi Sinesio, Fiorella Torp, Torfinn Baiamonte, Irene

The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for " processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre- processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre- processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

Background Continuity is an important aspect of quality of care, especially for complex patients in the community. We explored provider perceptions of continuity through a system’s lens. The circle of care was used as the system. Methods Soft systems methodology was used to understand and improve continuity for end of life patients in two communities. Participants: Physicians, nurses, pharmacists in two communities in British Columbia, involved in end of life care. Two debates/discussion groups were completed after the interviews and initial analysis to confirm findings. Interview recordings were qualitatively analyzed to extract components and enablers of continuity. Results 32 provider interviews were completed. Findings from this study support the three types of continuity described by Haggerty and Reid (information, management, and relationship continuity). This work extends their model by adding features of the circle of care that influence and enable continuity: Provider Connectedness the sense of knowing and trust between providers who share care of a patient a set of ten communication patterns that are used to support continuity across the circle of care and environmental factors outside the circle that can indirectly influence continuity. Conclusions We present an extended model of continuity of care. The components in the model can support health planners consider how health care is organized to promote continuity and by researchers when considering future continuity research. PMID:23941179

Mazumder, Sonal Pavurala, Naresh Manda, Prashanth Xu, Xiaoming Cruz, Celia N Krishnaiah, Yellela S R

The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA). A total of 14 laboratory-scale DoE formulations were prepared and evaluated for mechanical properties (%elongation at break, yield stress, Young's modulus, folding endurance) and other CQA (dry thickness, disintegration time, dissolution rate, moisture content, moisture uptake, drug assay and drug content uniformity). The main factors affecting mechanical properties were plasticizer to film former ratio and drying temperature. Dissolution rate was found to be sensitive to air flow rate during drying and plasticizer to film former ratio. Data were analyzed for elucidating interactions between different variables, rank ordering the critical materials attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP), and for providing a predictive model for the process . Results suggested that plasticizer to film former ratio and process controls on drying are critical to manufacture LMT ODF with the desired CQA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Jordan, A Chen, D Yi, Q-L Kanias, T Gladwin, M T Acker, J P

Quality control (QC) data collected by blood services are used to monitor production and to ensure compliance with regulatory standards. We demonstrate how analysis of quality control data can be used to highlight the sources of variability within red cell concentrates (RCCs). We merged Canadian Blood Services QC data with manufacturing and donor records for 28 227 RCC between June 2011 and October 2014. Units were categorized based on processing method, bag manufacturer, donor age and donor sex, then assessed based on product characteristics: haemolysis and haemoglobin levels, unit volume, leucocyte count and haematocrit. Buffy-coat method (top/bottom)- processed units exhibited lower haemolysis than units processed using the whole-blood filtration method (top/top). Units from female donors exhibited lower haemolysis than male donations. Processing method influenced unit volume and the ratio of additive solution to residual plasma. Stored red blood cell characteristics are influenced by prestorage processing and donor factors. Understanding the relationship between processing , donors and RCC quality will help blood services to ensure the safety of transfused products. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

Bian, X. X. Gu, Y. Z. Sun, J. Li, M. Liu, W. P. Zhang, Z. G.

In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process , including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process . The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process . The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

Wang, Ya-Qi Jiao, Jiao-Jiao Wu, Zhen-Feng Zheng, Qin Yang, Ming

"High quality , safety and effectiveness" are the primary principles for the pharmaceutical research and development process in China. The quality of products relies not only on the inspection method, but also on the design and development, process control and standardized management. The quality depends on the process control level. In this paper, the history and current development of quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations are reviewed systematically. Based on the development model of international drug quality control and the misunderstanding of quality control of TCM preparations, the reasons for impacting the homogeneity of TCM preparations are analyzed and summarized. According to TCM characteristics, efforts were made to control the diversity of TCM, make "unstable" TCM into "stable" Chinese patent medicines, put forward the concepts of "holistic view" and "QbD ( quality by design)", so as to create the "holistic, modular, data, standardized" model as the core of TCM preparation quality process control model. Scientific studies shall conform to the actual production of TCM preparations, and be conducive to supporting advanced equipment and technology upgrade, thoroughly applying the scientific research achievements in Chinese patent medicines, and promoting the cluster application and transformation application of TCM pharmaceutical technology, so as to improve the quality and effectiveness of the TCM industry and realize the green development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

Schöne, G Damerow, S Hölling, H Houben, R Gabrys, L

For a quantitative evaluation of primary data collection processes in epidemiological surveys based on accompaniments and observations (in the field), there is no description of test criteria and methodologies in relevant literature and thus no known application in practice. Therefore, methods need to be developed and existing procedures adapted. The aim was to identify quality -relevant developments within quality dimensions by means of inspection points ( quality indicators) during the process of data collection. As a result we seek to implement and establish a methodology for the assessment of overall survey quality supplementary to standardized data analyses. Monitors detect deviations from standard primary data collection during site visits by applying standardized checklists. Quantitative results - overall and for each dimension - are obtained by numerical calculation of quality indicators. Score results are categorized and color coded. This visual prioritization indicates necessity for intervention. The results obtained give clues regarding the current quality of data collection. This allows for the identification of such sections where interventions for quality improvement are needed. In addition, process quality development can be shown over time on an intercomparable basis. This methodology for the evaluation of data collection quality can identify deviations from norms, focalize quality analyses and help trace causes for significant deviations.

Zan, Tao Wang, Min Hu, Jianzhong

Machining status monitoring technique by multi-sensors can acquire and analyze the machining process information to implement abnormity diagnosis and fault warning. Statistical quality control technique is normally used to distinguish abnormal fluctuations from normal fluctuations through statistical method. In this paper by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods, the necessity and feasibility of integration and fusion is introduced. Then an approach that integrates multi-sensors status monitoring and statistical process control based on artificial intelligent technique, internet technique and database technique is brought forward. Based on virtual instrument technique the author developed the machining quality assurance system - MoniSysOnline, which has been used to monitoring the grinding machining process . By analyzing the quality data and AE signal information of wheel dressing process the reason of machining quality fluctuation has been obtained. The experiment result indicates that the approach is suitable for the status monitoring and analyzing of machining process .

The manufacturing of a biologic drug from mammalian cells results in not a single substance, but an array of product isoforms, also known as variants. These isoforms arise due to intracellular or extracellular events as a result of biological or chemical modification. The most common examples related to biomanufacturing include amino acid modifications (glycosylation, isomerization, oxidation, adduct formation, pyroglutamate formation, phosphorylation, sulfation, amidation), amino acid sequence variants (genetic mutations, amino acid misincorporation, N- and C-terminal heterogeneity, clipping), and higher-order structure modifications (misfolding, aggregation, disulfide pairing). Process -related impurities (HCP, DNA, media components, viral particles) are also important quality attributes related to product safety. The observed ranges associated with each quality attribute define the product quality profile. A biologic drug must have a correct and consistent quality profile throughout clinical development and scale-up to commercial production to ensure product safety and efficacy. In general, the upstream process (cell culture) defines the quality of product-related substances, whereas the downstream process (purification) defines the residual level of process - and product-related impurities. The purpose of this chapter is to review the impact of the cell culture process on product quality . Emphasis is placed on studies with industrial significance and where the direct mechanism of product quality impact was determined. Where possible, recommendations for maintaining consistent or improved quality are provided.

Standards of hygiene and health are of major importance in food production, and quality control has become obligatory in this field. Thanks to rapidly developing technologies, it is now possible for automatic and safe quality control of food production. For this purpose, image- processing -based quality control systems used in industrial applications are being employed to analyze the quality of food products. In this study, quality control of chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs was achieved using a real time image- processing technique. In order to execute the quality control processes , a conveying mechanism was used. Eggs passing on a conveyor belt were continuously photographed in real time by cameras located above the belt. The images obtained were processed by various methods and techniques. Using digital instrumentation, the volume of the eggs was measured, broken/cracked eggs were separated and dirty eggs were determined. In accordance with international standards for classifying the quality of eggs, the class of separated eggs was determined through a fuzzy implication model. According to tests carried out on thousands of eggs, a quality control process with an accuracy of 98% was possible. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

Reddy, Anita J Guzman, Jorge A

Quality improvement in the health care setting is a complex process , and even more so in the critical care environment. The development of intensive care unit process measures and quality improvement strategies are associated with improved outcomes, but should be individualized to each medical center as structure and culture can differ from institution to institution. The purpose of this report is to describe the structure of quality improvement processes within a large medical intensive care unit while using examples of the study institution's successes and challenges in the areas of stat antibiotic administration, reduction in blood product waste, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and medication errors. © The Author(s) 2015.

Optimal solutions to the impulsive circular phasing problem, a special class of orbital maneuver in which impulsive thrusts shift a vehicle's orbital position by a specified angle, are found using primer vector theory. The complexities of optimal circular phasing are identified and illustrated using specifically designed Matlab software tools. Information from these new visualizations is applied to explain discrepancies in locally optimal solutions found by previous researchers. Two non-phasing circle-to-circle impulsive rendezvous problems are also examined to show the applicability of the tools developed here to a broader class of problems and to show how optimizing these rendezvous problems differs from the circular phasing case.

Krasaephol, Siwaporn Chutima, Parames

This research focuses on the quality control process improvement of Flexible Printed Circuit Board (FPCB), centred around model 7-Flex, by using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) method to decrease proportion of defective finished goods that are found at the final inspection process . Due to a number of defective units that were found at the final inspection process , high scraps may be escaped to customers. The problem comes from poor quality control process which is not efficient enough to filter defective products from in- process because there is no In- Process Quality Control (IPQC) or sampling inspection in the process . Therefore, the quality control process has to be improved by setting inspection gates and IPCQs at critical processes in order to filter the defective products. The critical processes are analysed by the FMEA method. IPQC is used for detecting defective products and reducing chances of defective finished goods escaped to the customers. Reducing proportion of defective finished goods also decreases scrap cost because finished goods incur higher scrap cost than work in- process . Moreover, defective products that are found during process can reflect the abnormal processes therefore, engineers and operators should timely solve the problems. Improved quality control was implemented for 7-Flex production lines from July 2017 to September 2017. The result shows decreasing of the average proportion of defective finished goods and the average of Customer Manufacturers Lot Reject Rate (%LRR of CMs) equal to 4.5% and 4.1% respectively. Furthermore, cost saving of this quality control process equals to 100K Baht.

Today's mobile devices have to support computation-intensive multimedia applications with a limited energy budget. In this dissertation, we present architecture level and algorithm-level techniques that reduce energy consumption of these devices with minimal impact on system quality . First, we present novel techniques to mitigate the effects of SRAM memory failures in JPEG2000 implementations operating in scaled voltages. We investigate error control coding schemes and propose an unequal error protection scheme tailored for JPEG2000 that reduces overhead without affecting the performance. Furthermore, we propose algorithm-specific techniques for error compensation that exploit the fact that in JPEG2000 the discrete wavelet transform outputs have larger values for low frequency subband coefficients and smaller values for high frequency subband coefficients. Next, we present use of voltage overscaling to reduce the data-path power consumption of JPEG codecs. We propose an algorithm-specific technique which exploits the characteristics of the quantized coefficients after zig-zag scan to mitigate errors introduced by aggressive voltage scaling. Third, we investigate the effect of reducing dynamic range for datapath energy reduction. We analyze the effect of truncation error and propose a scheme that estimates the mean value of the truncation error during the pre-computation stage and compensates for this error. Such a scheme is very effective for reducing the noise power in applications that are dominated by additions and multiplications such as FIR filter and transform computation. We also present a novel sum of absolute difference (SAD) scheme that is based on most significant bit truncation. The proposed scheme exploits the fact that most of the absolute difference (AD) calculations result in small values, and most of the large AD values do not contribute to the SAD values of the blocks that are selected. Such a scheme is highly effective in reducing the energy

The relationship between students' study processes and the structural complexity of their learning is examined. Study processes are viewed in terms of three dimensions and are assessed by a questionnaire. Learning quality is expressed in levels of a taxonomy. A study that relates taxonomic levels and retention to study processes is reported.…

Yu, Wen-Kang Dong, Ling Pei, Wen-Xuan Sun, Zhi-Rong Dai, Jun-Dong Wang, Yun

The whole process quality control and management of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction pieces is a system engineering, involving the base environment, seeds and seedlings, harvesting, processing and other multiple steps, so the accurate identification of factors in TCM production process that may induce the quality risk, as well as reasonable quality control measures are very important. At present, the concept of quality risk is mainly concentrated in the aspects of management and regulations, etc. There is no comprehensive analysis on possible risks in the quality control process of TCM decoction pieces, or analysis summary of effective quality control schemes. A whole process quality control and management system for TCM decoction pieces based on TCM quality tree was proposed in this study. This system effectively combined the process analysis method of TCM quality tree with the quality risk management, and can help managers to make real-time decisions while realizing the whole process quality control of TCM. By providing personalized web interface, this system can realize user-oriented information feedback, and was convenient for users to predict, evaluate and control the quality of TCM. In the application process , the whole process quality control and management system of the TCM decoction pieces can identify the related quality factors such as base environment, cultivation and pieces processing , extend and modify the existing scientific workflow according to their own production conditions, and provide different enterprises with their own quality systems, to achieve the personalized service. As a new quality management model, this paper can provide reference for improving the quality of Chinese medicine production and quality standardization. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

The investigation of how a circle and square lying in the same plane could intersect each other is an excellent example of geometric problem-solving. This paper explores three facets of the investigation: (1) finding out how many points of intersection are possible, (2) classifying the different ways of intersection, and (3) determining which ways…

The Circle of Security™ interventions are psychosocial treatments intended to increase maternal sensitivity and thus child attachment security in infants and young children. A small number of publications have reported empirical research on outcomes of these treatments. This article reviews the research evidence, plausibility, theoretical…

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING WAY VIEW OF 2401 PIEDMONT, ALPHA EPSILON PHI HOUSE BY RATCLIFF & RATCLIFF, 1958. SEEN FROM NW CORNER LOOKING SE. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

Appleton, Eric Farina, Solange Holzer, Tyler Kotelawala, Usha Trushkowsky, Mark

This article describes the New York City Community of Adult Math Instructors (CAMI), a math teachers' circle founded in November 2014. The authors share details about their own participation in CAMI to show the professional growth that research-based, peer-led professional development can offer for adult educators.

The circle of Apollonius is named after the ancient geometrician Apollonius of Perga. This beautiful geometric construct can be helpful when solving some general problems of geometry and mathematical physics, optics, and electricity. Here we discuss two of its applications: localizing an object in space and calculating electric fields. First, we…

Moore, Sharon Wallace, Sherri L. Schack, Gina Thomas, M. Shelley Lewis, Linda Wilson, Linda Miller, Shawnise D'Antoni, Joan

This essay examines the Inclusive Teaching Circle (ITC) as a mechanism for faculty development in creating instructional tools that embrace an inclusive pedagogy reflecting diversity, cultural competence and social justice. We describe one group's year-long participation in an ITC at a large, metropolitan research university in the south. Next, we…

Unsuccessful college education often turns our students into book haters who will stop reading as soon as they graduate. The idea of literature circles embraces the concept of "reading for fun" and is intended to create more independent readers and book addicts who will continuously read for the rest of their lives. Pioneers in literacy…

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL), 2007

This training guide was created by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) to help connect research and practice in the field of adult education and family literacy. A Health and Adult Literacy and Learning (HALL)/NCSALL Health Literacy Study Circle + is a professional development activity for adult basic education…

Madhuri, Marga Walker, Nancy Landmann-Johnsey, Erica Laughter, Judson

Literacy educators feel it is incumbent on teacher preparation programs to prepare teacher candidates with the dispositions and competencies needed to work with students from diverse racial, cultural, and economic backgrounds. As a way to initiate the discussion and help candidates examine their own views on race, literature circles are used. The…

Preston-Cunningham, Tammie Elbert, Chanda D. Dooley, Kim E.

The researchers employed qualitative methods to evaluate first-year female students' definition of "leadership" through involvement in the Women's Learning Circle . The findings revealed that students defined leadership in two dimensions: traits and behaviors. The qualitative findings explore a multidimensional approach to the voices of…

VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE TRAFFIC CIRCLE AT INTERSECTION OF CHANNING WAY. SEEN FROM SW CORNER TOWARDS 2395 PIEDMONT, SIGMA PI HOUSE BY FREDERICK H. REIMERS, 1928. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

Fairy circles are rings of relatively dense grass in arid regions with sparse vegetation. The most famous examples are found in the Namib Desert. There has been an ongoing debate regarding the origin of these features, and a recent paper by Ravi et al. (2017, doi:10.1002/2016JG003604) sheds some light on this situation.

Cefai, Carmel Ferrario, Erika Cavioni, Valeria Carter, Audrey Grech, Tracy

This paper discusses the findings and implications of a semi-randomised control trial study on the effectiveness of circle time (CT) on primary school students' social and emotional learning, as well as classroom teachers' and students' experience of CT. A social and emotional learning programme was delivered through CT by trained classroom…

View of Staff Officers' Quarters Area from Staff Circle . Building No. 403 is to the right, Building No. 404 is to the left, and Building No. 405 is in far left in background. Facing west - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

Discusses the confusion and erroneous conclusions that can result from the overuse and misuse of the circle notation to represent aromaticity in polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons. Includes nature of the problem, textbook treatment, and a possible compromise method of representation. (Author/JN)

In this note, primarily intended for high school students and high school teachers, characterizations of a right triangle and an equilateral triangle in the Euclidean plane are presented using the nine-point circle of a given triangle. Geometrical applications are explored along with their possible uses in the teaching environment. (Contains 4…

Journal of American Indian Education, 1977

"Sacred Circles " opened April 16, 1977 at the Nelson Gallery of Art-Atkins Museum of Fine Arts in Kansas City for its only showing in the Americas the 850 objects on loan from 90 museums and private collectors included the "Adena Pipe" (considered the most important archaeological object found in the eastern US). (JC)

The study circle is described as a democratic and emancipatory method for learning that can be summarized in three words: learning by sharing. This method offers opportunities and possibilities for all participants to contribute their previous knowledge and experiences through open and democratic dialogue. As a method for "liberal adult…

Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

The goal of the Pacific Circle Project is to improve international and intercultural understanding among the people and nations of the Pacific. Consortium member countries are Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Within the countries are chosen member institutions. Two major types of activities of the consortium are the exchange…

Contracts for M2 Machine Gun Spare Parts in Support of Operations in Southwest Asia,” January 11, 2010 Appendixes DODIG-2015-140 │ 29 Appendix B. personnel are adequately processing product quality deficiency reports and identifying the root cause for defective spare parts . This is the first. quality deficiency report program and prevents meaningful analysis of the primary causes of spare- part quality deficiencies. In addition, the

Xu, Bing Cui, Xiang-Long Yang, Chan Wang, Xin Shi, Xin-Yuan Qiao, Yan-Jiang

Quality by design (QbD) highlights the concept of "begin with the end", which means to thoroughly understand the target product quality first, and then guide pharmaceutical process development and quality control throughout the whole manufacturing process . In this paper, the Ginkgo biloba granules intermediates were taken as the research object, and the requirements of the tensile strength of tablets were treated as the goals to establish the methods for identification of granules' critical quality attributes (CQAs) and establishment of CQAs' limits. Firstly, the orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model was adopted to build the relationship between the micromeritic properties of 29 batches of granules and the tensile strength of ginkgo leaf tablets, and thereby the potential critical quality attributes (pCQAs) were screened by variable importance in the projection (VIP) indexes. Then, a series of OPLS models were rebuilt by reducing pCQAs variables one by one in view of the rule of VIP values from low to high in sequence. The model performance results demonstrated that calibration and predictive performance of the model had no decreasing trend after variables reduction. In consideration of the results from variables selection as well as the collinearity test and testability of the pCQAs, the median particle size (D₅₀) and the bulk density (Da) were identified as critical quality attributes (CQAs). The design space of CQAs was developed based on a multiple linear regression model established between the CQAs (D₅₀ and Da) and the tensile strength. The control constraints of the CQAs were determined as 170 μm process of the ginkgo leaf tablet.. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

Scott-Little, Catherine Brown, E. Glyn Hooks, Laura McDonald Marshall, Betty Jo

Working with the South Carolina Department of Education, the authors surveyed prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers whose schools participated in a quality rating system to see what they did to get ready for the observation and what they thought of the evaluation process . The authors also asked them what they thought about the quality of their…

Jeon, Lieny Buettner, Cynthia K. Hur, Eunhye

Research Findings: This exploratory study identified preschool teacher quality profiles in early childhood education settings using 9 indicators across teachers' professional background, observed process quality , and job attitudes toward teaching (e.g., job-related stress, satisfaction, and intention to leave the job). The sample consisted of 96…

In Finland, quality assurance related to the Bologna process has been adapted to existing systems of higher education at the national level and a form of implementation is also recognised at the level of the higher education institution. In universities, varied outcomes of quality assurance are based on interaction of organisational structures,…

Herrera, Maria Olivia Mathiesen, Maria Elena Merino, Jose Manuel Recart, Isidora

ITERS (Infant and Toddler Environment Rating Scale), ECERS (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) and SACERS (School Age Care Environment Rating Scale) are used to measure process quality . The psychometric characteristics of the three scales are established, and high reliability and adequate validity are observed. The global quality process…

Weiner, Lauren Bresciani, Marilee J.

The researchers explored whether implementation of a systematic outcomes-based assessment process is necessary for demonstrating quality in service learning programs at a two-year and a four-year institution. The findings revealed that Western Community College and the University of the Coast maintained quality service-learning programs, which met…

Biputh, Barath McKenna, Sioux

This paper tracks the development of the Integrated Quality Management System in South African schools after the dismantling of apartheid in 1994. We argue that the quality processes that are now in place emerged in response to the autocratic school inspection systems that preceded them but did not sufficiently address the impact of educators'…

Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

Project #OPE-FY17-0016, June 5, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to assess the effectiveness of EPA's process for reviewing and approving air quality dispersion models it recommends for use.

The objective of this research is to understand how a set of systems, as defined by the business process , creates value. The three studies contained in this work develop the model of process -based automation. The model states that complementarities among systems are specified by handoffs in the business process . The model also provides theory to…

Lovlien, Cheryl A Johansen, Martha Timm, Sandra Eversman, Shari Gusa, Dorothy Twedell, Diane

Maintaining the integrity of record keeping and retrievable information related to the provision of continuing education credit creates challenges for a large organization. Accurate educational program documentation is vital to support the knowledge and professional development of nursing staff. Quality review and accurate documentation of programs for nursing staff development occurred at one institution through the use of continuous improvement principles. Integration of the new process into the current system maintains the process of providing quality record keeping.

Quality Management , a small group of Government and industry specialists examined the existing training device acceptance test process for potential improvements. The agreed-to mission of the Air Force/Industry partnership was to continuously identify and promote implementable approaches to minimize the cost and time required for acceptance testing while ensuring that validated performance supports the user training requirements. Application of a Total Quality process improvement model focused on the customers and their requirements, analyzed how work was accomplished, and

Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus Andersson Gäre, Boel Elg, Mattias

To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

Sonnenberg, Amnon Collins, Judith F

Inflammatory bowel disease can present with a bewildering array of disease manifestations whose overall impact on patient health is difficult to disentangle. The multitude of disease complications and therapeutic side effects result in conflicting ideas on how to best manage a patient. The aim of the study is to test the usefulness of influence diagrams in resolving conflicts centered on managing complex disease processes . The influences of a disease process and the ensuing medical interventions on the health of a patient with inflammatory bowel disease are modeled by an influence diagram. Patient health is the focal point of multiple influences affecting its overall strength. Any downstream influence represents the focal point of other preceding upstream influences. The mathematics underlying the influence diagram is similar to that of a decision tree. Its formalism allows one to consider additive and inhibitory influences and include in the same analysis qualitatively different types of parameters, such as diagnoses, complications, side effects, and therapeutic outcomes. Three exemplary cases are presented to illustrate the potential use of influence diagrams. In all three case scenarios, Crohn's disease resulted in disease manifestations that seemingly interfered with its own therapy. The presence of negative feedback loops rendered the management of each case particularly challenging. The analyses by influence diagrams revealed subtle interactions among the multiple influences and their joint contributions to the patient's overall health that would have been difficult to appreciate by verbal reasoning alone. Influence diagrams represent a decision tool that is particularly suited to improve decision-making in inflammatory bowel disease. They highlight key factors of a complex disease process and help to assess their quantitative interactions.

Micro-needle array, which is used in medical applications, is a kind of typical injection molded products with microstructures. Due to its tiny micro-features size and high aspect ratios, it is more likely to produce short shots defects, leading to poor molding quality . The injection molding process of the micro-needle array was studied in this paper to find the effects of the process parameters on the molding quality of the micro-needle array and to provide theoretical guidance for practical production of high- quality products. With the shrinkage ratio and warpage of micro needles as the evaluation indices of the molding quality , the orthogonal experiment was conducted and the analysis of variance was carried out. According to the results, the contribution rates were calculated to determine the influence of various process parameters on molding quality . The single parameter method was used to analyse the main process parameter. It was found that the contribution rate of the holding pressure on shrinkage ratio and warpage reached 83.55% and 94.71% respectively, far higher than that of the other parameters. The study revealed that the holding pressure is the main factor which affects the molding quality of micro-needle array so that it should be focused on in order to obtain plastic parts with high quality in the practical production.

Jordan, Rebecca H. King, Oliver Wicks, Gary W. Hall, Dennis G. Anderson, Erik H. Rooks, Michael J.

We describe the fabrication and operational characteristics of a novel, surface-emitting semiconductor laser that makes use of a concentric- circle grating to both define its resonant cavity and to provide surface emission. A properly fabricated circular grating causes the laser to operate in radially inward- and outward-going circular waves in the waveguide, thus, introducing the circular symmetry needed for the laser to emit a beam with a circular cross-section. The basic circular-grating-resonator concept can be implemented in any materials system an AlGaAs/GaAs graded-index, separate confinement heterostructure (GRINSCH), single-quantum-well (SQW) semiconductor laser, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), was used for the experiments discussed here. Each concentric- circle grating was fabricated on the surface of the AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor laser. The circular pattern was first defined by electron-beam (e-beam) lithography in a layer of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and subsequently etched into the semiconductor surface using chemically-assisted (chlorine) ion-beam etching (CAIBE). We consider issues that affect the fabrication and quality of the gratings. These issues include grating design requirements, data representation of the grating pattern, and e-beam scan method. We provide examples of how these techniques can be implemented and their impact on the resulting laser performance. A comparison is made of the results obtained using two fundamentally different electron-beam writing systems. Circular gratings with period lambda = 0.25 microns and overall diameters ranging from 80 microns to 500 microns were fabricated. We also report our successful demonstration of an optically pumped, concentric- circle grating, semiconductor laser that emits a beam with a far-field divergence angle that is less than one degree. The emission spectrum is quite narrow (less than 0.1 nm) and is centered at wavelength lambda = 0.8175 microns.

Pantelyat, Alexander Syres, Candace Reichwein, Suzanne Willis, Allison

Background Physical therapy can improve motor function in patients with PD. Music performance may be used to improve motor skills by rhythmic entrainment. Drumming has long been a part of traditional healing rituals worldwide, and is increasingly being utilized as a therapeutic strategy. Methods This pilot controlled prospective cohort trial assessed feasibility and effects of twice-weekly group West African drum circle classes for 6 weeks on PD patients’ quality of life, symptoms, motor findings, cognition, and mood. Ten patients with PD were recruited into the drum circle group. Ten patients with PD were matched pairwise to each of the drum circle participants, and enrolled in a no-intervention control group. Both groups completed the PD-specific Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)-39 quality of life assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and underwent motor and cognitive assessments by a rater blinded to group at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Results Drummers had significantly improved PDQ-39 scores from baseline to 6 weeks (−5.8, p=0.042), whereas the control group's scores were unchanged. Walking performance was significantly faster at baseline for controls after 6 weeks of drumming this difference was no longer significant, and remained non-significant at 12 weeks. The drummers trended (p=0.069) toward improvement in walking from baseline to 12 weeks. Other outcomes did not significantly change from baseline to 6 or 12 weeks. Conclusions Drum circle classes significantly and reversibly improved quality of life in patients with PD. This pilot trial's findings merit larger controlled investigations comparing drumming classes to established interventions in PD, such as physical therapy. PMID:27340683

The late Lord Soli Zuckerman, science advisor to several British governments, encouraged the author, an astronomer, to test the theory that all crop circles were made by hoaxers. Within the hundreds of formations in Southern England he saw a thread of surprising historical content at the intellectual level of College Dons. One diagram in celestial mechanics involved triple conjunctions of Mercury, Venus and Mars every 67 2/3 years. Ptolemy's fourth musical scale, tense diatonic, occurred in the circles during the period 1978-88. Starting on E, Ptolemaic ratios make our perfect diatonic scale of white notes on the keyboard of the piano or church organ. For separated circles the ratio was given by diameters, and for concentric circles it was diameters squared. A series of rotationally symmetric figures began in 1988 which combined Ptolemy's ratios with Euclid's theorems. In his last plane theorem, Euclid (Elements 13,12) proved that the square on the side of an equilateral triangle is 3 times the square on the circum- circle radius -- diatonic note G(2). From the 1988 figure one can prove the square on the side is 16/3 times the square on the semi-altitude, giving note F(3). Later rotational figures over the next 5 years led to diatonic ratios for the hexagon, square and triangle. They gave with the exactness of Euclidean theorems the notes F, C(2) and E(2), and they are the only regular polygons to do so. Although these 4 crop theorems derive from Euclid, they were previously unknown as a set in the literature, nor had the Ptolemaic connection been published. Professional magazines asked the readers to provide a fifth theorem that would generate the above 4 theorems, but none was forthcoming. Ultimately the cicle makers showed knowledge of this generating theorem using a 200-ft design at Litchfield, Hampshire. After 1993, rotationally symmetric geometries continued to appear, but with much more complicated patterns. One design showed 6 crescent moons in a hexagon

Wagner, Martin Stessl, Beatrix

The Listeria monitoring program for Austrian cheese factories was established in 1988. The basic idea is to control the introduction of L. monocytogenes into the food processing environment, preventing the pathogen from contaminating the food under processing . The Austrian Listeria monitoring program comprises four levels of investigation, dealing with routine monitoring of samples and consequences of finding a positive sample. Preventive quality control concepts attempt to detect a foodborne hazard along the food processing chain, prior to food delivery, retailing, and consumption. The implementation of a preventive food safety concept provokes a deepened insight by the manufacturers into problems concerning food safety. The development of preventive quality assurance strategies contributes to the national food safety status and protects public health.

Whitaker, Philip Barratt, Penny Joy, Helen Potter, Mo Thomas, George

Explains the " circle of friends approach" as one strategy aimed at using peer group support to promote the inclusion of children with autism into mainstream schools. It describes use of the approach with six autistic children in years 3 to 10 of British mainstream schools. Evaluation comments by the circle leaders, circle members, and…

Cummins, Melissa Petty, Barbara Hansen, Lyle Hoffman, Katie Wittman, Grace

Extension educators expanded the reach of their programming to underserved audiences through the implementation of Study Circles in rural Southern Idaho. Study Circles gave educators entry into communities by establishing relationships necessary for long-term change. Study Circle discussions in rural Southern Idaho led to stronger relationships…

Burns, Barbara Henry, Julie McCarthy, Dianne Tripp, Jennifer

Math Circles are designed to allow students to explore mathematics using a problem-solving/inquiry approach. Many of the students attending our Math Circle are mathematically talented and curious. This study examines the perspectives of the students and their families in determining why students attend Math Circle , what they enjoy about Math…

Verbos, Amy Klemm Gladstone, Joe S. Kennedy, Deanna M.

Circles are symbols of interconnectedness. Behavioral circles can be vicious or virtuous. Many American Indians are caught in a vicious circle of exclusion from the purported benefits of Westernization, entrapment in its negative elements, and the ongoing undermining of their culture and thus their identities. Yet Native Americans, along with many…

This document describes the calculation of the Earth-Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) coordinates for points lying on the perimeter of a circle . Here, the perimeter of the circle lies on the surface of the sphere and the center of the planar circle is below the surface. These coordinates are converted to latitude and longitude for mapping fields on the surface of the earth.

Ka, Hyun W Simpson, Richard C

To investigate a new alternative interaction method, called circling interface, for manipulating on-screen objects. To specify a target, the user makes a circling motion around the target. To specify a desired pointing command with the circling interface, each edge of the screen is used. The user selects a command before circling the target. To evaluate the circling interface, we conducted an experiment with 16 participants, comparing the performance on pointing tasks with different combinations of selection method ( circling interface, physical mouse and dwelling interface) and input device (normal computer mouse, head pointer and joystick mouse emulator). A circling interface is compatible with many types of pointing devices, not requiring physical activation of mouse buttons, and is more efficient than dwell-clicking. Across all common pointing operations, the circling interface had a tendency to produce faster performance with a head-mounted mouse emulator than with a joystick mouse. The performance accuracy of the circling interface outperformed the dwelling interface. It was demonstrated that the circling interface has the potential as another alternative pointing method for selecting and manipulating objects in a graphical user interface. Implications for Rehabilitation A circling interface will improve clinical practice by providing an alternative pointing method that does not require physically activating mouse buttons and is more efficient than dwell-clicking. The Circling interface can also work with AAC devices.

Allowable-cut (potential yield) levels on National Forest land are determined for planning units called working circles . The size of working circles has been increased over the past 30 years to the present scale which is often coincident with National Forest boundaries. Larger working circles have recently been considered because of the anticipated impacts on timber.

Transaction circles weave together elements of guided reading and literature circles in an open conversational structure that supports students as agentive learners. Discourse within these circles utilizing digital informational texts assist in the development of democratic practices even in a time when federal mandates limit curricula and…

Xu, Zeen Zhang, Jun Zhang, Daimeng Liu, Xiaomao Tian, Jinwen

Aiming at solving the problem of accurately positioning the detection probes underwater, this paper proposed a method based on computer vision which can effectively solve this problem. The theory of this method is that: First, because the shape information of the heat tube is similar to a circle in the image, we can find a circle which physical location is well known in the image, we set this circle as the reference circle . Second, we calculate the pixel offset between the reference circle and the probes in the picture, and adjust the steering gear through the offset. As a result, we can accurately measure the physical distance between the probes and the under test heat tubes, then we can know the precise location of the probes underwater. However, how to choose reference circle in image is a difficult problem. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that can adaptively confirm the area of reference circle . In this area, there will be only one circle , and the circle is the reference circle . The test results show that the accuracy of the algorithm of extracting the reference circle in the whole picture without using ROI (region of interest) of the reference circle is only 58.76% and the proposed algorithm is 95.88%. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the efficiency of the tubes detection.

The nine-point circle theorem is one of the most beautiful and surprising theorems in Euclidean geometry. It establishes an existence of a circle passing through nine points, all of which are related to a single triangle. This paper describes a set of instructional activities that can help students discover the nine-point circle theorem through…

Noe, Katherine L. Schlick Johnson, Nancy J.

Designed to help teachers get started using literature circles in their classrooms, this book gives teachers a boost to begin, offers some insights from other teachers, and helps teachers clarify where to go next. It notes that literature circles (or literature study groups, book clubs, or discussion circles ) take many forms and engage students in…

The purpose of this study was to improve the safety and operation at three traffic circles in New : Jersey. To do this, data were collected at the traffic circles to allow researchers to model the : circles using the PARAMICS software simulation pack.

This thesis addresses the characterization of light scattering processes that degrade image quality in high performance electronic display devices for digital radiography. Using novel experimental and computational tools, we study the lateral diffusion of light in emissive display devices that causes extensive veiling glare and significant reduction of the physical contrast. In addition, we examine the deleterious effects of ambient light reflections that affect the contrast of low luminance regions, and superimpose unwanted structured signal. The analysis begins by introducing the performance limitations of the human visual system to define high fidelity requirements. It is noted that current devices severely suffer from image quality degradation due to optical transport processes . To model the veiling glare and reflectance characteristics of display devices, we introduce a Monte Carlo light transport simulation code, DETECT-II, that tracks individual photons through multiple scattering events. The simulation accounts for the photon polarization state at each scattering event, and provides descriptions for rough surfaces and thin film coatings. A new experimental method to measure veiling glare is described next, based on a conic collimated probe that minimizes contamination from bright areas. The measured veiling glare ratio is taken to be the luminance in the surrounding bright field divided by the luminance in the dark circle . We show that veiling glare ratios in the order of a few hundreds can be measured with an uncertainty of a few percent. The veiling glare response function is obtained by measuring the small spot contrast ratio of test patterns having varying dark spot radius. Using DETECT-II, we then estimate the ring response functions for a high performance medical imaging monitor of current design, and compare the predictions of the model with the experimentally measured response function. The data presented in this thesis demonstrate that although

Moberg, Kayla Amin, Kemia N. Wright, Melissa Newkirk, Jordan J. Ponder, Monica A. Acuff, Gary R. Dickson, James S.

Abstract Selected processing methods, demonstrated to be effective at reducing Salmonella, were assessed to determine if spice and herb quality was affected. Black peppercorn, cumin seed, oregano, and onion powder were irradiated to a target dose of 8 kGy. Two additional processes were examined for whole black peppercorns and cumin seeds: ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and vacuum assisted‐steam (82.22 °C, 7.5 psia). Treated and untreated spices/herbs were compared (visual, odor) using sensory similarity testing protocols (α = 0.20 β = 0.05 proportion of discriminators: 20%) to determine if processing altered sensory quality . Analytical assessment of quality (color, water activity, and volatile chemistry) was completed. Irradiation did not alter visual or odor sensory quality of black peppercorn, cumin seed, or oregano but created differences in onion powder, which was lighter (higher L *) and more red (higher a*) in color, and resulted in nearly complete loss of measured volatile compounds. EtO processing did not create detectable odor or appearance differences in black peppercorn however visual and odor sensory quality differences, supported by changes in color (higher b * lower L *) and increased concentrations of most volatiles, were detected for cumin seeds. Steam processing of black peppercorn resulted in perceptible odor differences, supported by increased concentration of monoterpene volatiles and loss of all sesquiterpenes only visual differences were noted for cumin seed. An important step in process validation is the verification that no effect is detectable from a sensory perspective. PMID:28407236

Yan, Bin-Jun Guo, Zheng-Tai Qu, Hai-Bin Zhao, Bu-Chang Zhao, Tao

In this work, a feedforward control strategy basing on the concept of quality by design was established for the manufacturing process of traditional Chinese medicine to reduce the impact of the quality variation of raw materials on drug. In the research, the ethanol precipitation process of Danhong injection was taken as an application case of the method established. Box-Behnken design of experiments was conducted. Mathematical models relating the attributes of the concentrate, the process parameters and the quality of the supernatants produced were established. Then an optimization model for calculating the best process parameters basing on the attributes of the concentrate was built. The quality of the supernatants produced by ethanol precipitation with optimized and non-optimized process parameters were compared. The results showed that using the feedforward control strategy for process parameters optimization can control the quality of the supernatants effectively. The feedforward control strategy proposed can enhance the batch-to-batch consistency of the supernatants produced by ethanol precipitation.

McLaughlin, Nancy Rodstein, Jennifer Burke, Michael A Martin, Neil A

Reliable delivery of optimal care can be challenging for care providers. Health care leaders have integrated various business tools to assist them and their teams in ensuring consistent delivery of safe and top- quality care. The cornerstone to all quality improvement strategies is the detailed understanding of the current state of a process , captured by process mapping. Process mapping empowers caregivers to audit how they are currently delivering care to subsequently strategically plan improvement initiatives. As a community, neurosurgery has clearly shown dedication to enhancing patient safety and delivering quality care. A care redesign strategy named NERVS (Neurosurgery Enhanced Recovery after surgery, Value, and Safety) is currently being developed and piloted within our department. Through this initiative, a multidisciplinary team led by a clinician neurosurgeon has process mapped the way care is currently being delivered throughout the entire episode of care. Neurosurgeons are becoming leaders in quality programs, and their education on the quality improvement strategies and tools is essential. The authors present a comprehensive review of process mapping, demystifying its planning, its building, and its analysis. The particularities of using process maps, initially a business tool, in the health care arena are discussed, and their specific use in an academic neurosurgical department is presented.

Taking into account the characteristics of college experimental teaching, through investigaton and analysis, evaluation indices and an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytical hierarchy process method, and the evaluation indices have been given reasonable weights. An…

Renaud, Robert D. Murray, Harry G.

One way to assess the quality of education in post-secondary institutions is through the use of performance indicators. Studies that have compared currently popular process indicators (e.g., library size, percentage of faculty with PhD) found that after controlling for incoming student ability, these process indicators tend to be weakly associated…

This paper provides a description of a teaching approach that uses experiential learning to teach process improvement. The teaching approach uses student groups to perform and gather process data in a senior-level quality management class that focuses on Lean Six Sigma. A strategy to link the experiential learning in the group projects to the…

This dissertation introduces a theory of information quality to explain macroscopic behavior observed in the systems engineering process . The theory extends principles of Shannon's mathematical theory of communication [1948] and statistical mechanics to information development processes concerned with the flow, transformation, and meaning of…

Lamson, Nina Babb, David Schmidt, Robert

The University of North Georgia utilizes the internal Quality Matters (QM) process to review all their online courses. As our online course offerings have increased, the need to devise a system to track the QM process , ensure timely reviews, and begin recertification of previously reviewed courses was necessary. As a result, several reports have…

Three major sediment-associated processes were presented to describe the effects of sediment on lake water quality processes : the effect of suspended sediment on the light intensity for the growth of phytoplankton (PHYTO), the adsorption–desorption of nutrients by sediment, and the release of nutrie.

The oxidation ditch process is economic and efficient for wastewater treatment, but its application is limited in case where land is costly due to its large land area required. An innovative integrated oxidation ditch with vertical circle (IODVC) system was developed to treat domestic and industrial wastewater aiming to save land area. The new system consists of a single-channel divided into two ditches(the top one and the bottom one by a plate), a brush, and an innovative integral clarifier. Different from the horizontal circle of the conventional oxidation ditch, the flow of IODVC system recycles from the top zone to the bottom zone in the vertical circle as the brush is running, and then the IODVC saved land area required by about 50% compared with a conventional oxidation ditch with an intrachannel clarifier. The innovative integral clarifier is effective for separation of liquid and solids, and is preferably positioned at the opposite end of the brush in the ditch. It does not affect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the mixed liquor in the ditch, and the sludge can automatically return to the down ditch without any pump. In this study, experiments of domestic and dye wastewater treatment were carried out in bench scale and in full scale, respectively. Results clearly showed that the IODVC efficiently removed pollutants in the wastewaters, i.e., the average of COD removals for domestic and dye wastewater treatment were 95% and 90%, respectively, and that the IODVC process may provide a cost effective way for full scale dye wastewater treatment.

Phillips, L R Morrison, E Steffl, B Chae, Y M Cromwell, S L Russell, C K

A staged theoretical model designed to explain the quality of elder caring by family members was tested. The model posits how the situational context, interactional process , and caregiving burden perceived by the caregiver affect the quality of elder caring. The purpose was to determine the amount of variance explained by the interactional process beyond that explained by the situational context and caregiving burden. Data were collected from 209 elder-caregiver dyads using interviews, observations, and caregiver self-reports. The strongest predictors of caregiving burden were the caregiver's stressful negative life events (situational context) and discrepancy between past and present image of elder (interactional process ). The strongest predictors of quality of elder caring were the caregiver's perception of subjective burden and a monitoring role definition on the part of the caregiver (interactional process ).

Trujnara, M Czerwiński, J Osadzińska, J

This article describes the application of a quality system at the hospital level at the Multidisciplinary Hospital in Warsaw-Międzylesie in Poland. A quality system of hospital procedures (in accordance with the ISO system 9001:2008) regarding the donation process , from the identification of a possible donor to the retrieval of organs, was applied there in 2014. Seven independent documents about hospital procedures, were designed to cover the entire process of donation. The number of donors identified increased after the application of the quality system. The reason for this increase is, above all, the cooperation of the well-trained team of specialists who have been engaged in the process of donation for many years, but formal procedures certainly organize the process and make it easier. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Hahlweg, Pola Didi, Sarah Kriston, Levente Härter, Martin Nestoriuc, Yvonne Scholl, Isabelle

The quality of decision-making in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTMs) depends on the quality of information presented and the quality of team processes . Few studies have examined these factors using a standardized approach. The aim of this study was to objectively document the processes involved in decision-making in MDTMs, document the outcomes in terms of whether a treatment recommendation was given (none vs. singular vs. multiple), and to identify factors related to type of treatment recommendation. An adaptation of the observer rating scale Multidisciplinary Tumor Board Metric for the Observation of Decision-Making (MDT-MODe) was used to assess the quality of the presented information and team processes in MDTMs. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and mixed logistic regression analysis. N = 249 cases were observed in N = 29 MDTMs. While cancer-specific medical information was judged to be of high quality , psychosocial information and information regarding patient views were considered to be of low quality . In 25% of the cases no, in 64% one, and in 10% more than one treatment recommendations were given (1% missing data). Giving no treatment recommendation was associated with duration of case discussion, duration of the MDTM session, quality of case history, quality of radiological information, and specialization of the MDTM. Higher levels of medical and treatment uncertainty during discussions were found to be associated with a higher probability for more than one treatment recommendation. The quality of different aspects of information was observed to differ greatly. In general, we did not find MDTMs to be in line with the principles of patient-centered care. Recommendation outcome varied substantially between different specializations of MDTMs. The quality of certain information was associated with the recommendation outcome. Uncertainty during discussions was related to more than one recommendation being considered. Time constraints

Khalatbari, Azadeh Jenab, Kouroush

Today's imaging diagnosis needs to adapt modern techniques of quality engineering to maintain and improve its accuracy and reliability in health care system. One of the main factors that influences diagnostic accuracy of plain film X-ray on detecting pathology is the level of film exposure. If the level of film exposure is not adequate, a normal body structure may be interpretated as pathology and vice versa. This not only influences the patient management but also has an impact on health care cost and patient's quality of life. Therefore, providing an accurate and high quality image is the first step toward an excellent patient management in any health care system. In this paper, we study these techniques and also present a fuzzy intelligent quality monitoring model, which can be used to keep variables from degrading the image quality . The variables derived from chemical activity, cleaning procedures, maintenance, and monitoring may not be sensed, measured, or calculated precisely due to uncertain situations. Therefore, the gamma-level fuzzy Bayesian model for quality monitoring of an image processing is proposed. In order to apply the Bayesian concept, the fuzzy quality characteristics are assumed as fuzzy random variables. Using the fuzzy quality characteristics, the newly developed model calculates the degradation risk for image processing . A numerical example is also presented to demonstrate the application of the model.

To enable investigation of nematode mitochondrial DNA evolution, methodology has been developed to amplify intact nematode mitochondrial genomes in preparative yields using a rolling circle replication strategy. Successful reactions were generated from whole cell template DNA prepared by alkaline lysis of the rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and a mermithid nematode, Thaumamermis cosgrovei. These taxa, representing the two major nematode classes Chromodorea and Enoplea, maintain mitochondrial genomes of 13.8 kb and 20.0 kb, respectively. Efficient amplifications were conducted on template DNA isolated from individual or pooled nematodes that were alive or stored at -80°C. Unexpectedly, these experiments revealed that multiple T. cosgrovei mitochondrial DNA haplotypes are maintained in our local population. Rolling circle amplification products can be used as templates for standard PCR reactions with specific primers that target mitochondrial genes or for direct DNA sequencing. PMID:19262866

Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles Neto, Waldemar Brandão de Lima, Luciane Soares de Aquino, Jael Maria Gontijo, Daniela Tavares Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira

An action research based on Paulo Freire's Culture Circles was developed to implement a health education intervention involving adolescents, in collective knowledge construction about strategies for the prevention of violence. The data collection in the Culture Circles involved 11 adolescents and included observation and field diary, photographic records and recording. The educational action aroused a critical socio-political and cultural position in the adolescents towards the situations of vulnerability to violence, including the guarantee of human rights, justice and the combat of inequities changes in the social relations, combat against discrimination and intolerance expansion of access and reorientation of health services through intersectoral public policies. The intervention empowered the group of adolescents for the prevention of violence and permitted the inclusion of health professionals in the school context, from an interdisciplinary perspective, contributing to the establishment of social support and protection networks. PMID:25931647

Tan, Manrong Yan, Dan Qiu, Lingling Chen, Longhu Yan, Yan Jin, Cheng Li, Hanbing Xiao, Xiaohe

For the quality management system of herbal medicines, intermediate and finished products it exists the " short board" effect of methodologies. Based on the concept of process control, new strategies and new methods of the production process quality control had been established with the consideration of the actual production of traditional Chinese medicine an the characteristics of Chinese medicine. Taking Banlangen granule as a practice example, which was effective and widespread application, character identification, determination of index components, chemical fingerprint and biometrics technology were sequentially used respectively to assess the quality of Banlangen herbal medicines, intermediate (water extraction and alcohol precipitation) and finished product. With the transfer rate of chemical information and biological potency as indicators, the effectiveness and transmission of the above different assessments and control methods had been researched. And ultimately, the process quality control methods of Banlangen granule, which were based on chemical composition analysis-biometric analysis, had been set up. It can not only validly solute the current status that there were many manufacturers varying quality of Banlangen granule, but also ensure and enhance its clinical efficacy. Furthermore it provided a foundation for the construction of the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine production process .

Murphy, Steven C Martin, Nicole H Barbano, David M Wiedmann, Martin

This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality . Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high- quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high- quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high- quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., quality incentive programs in

Manoussakis, Gerassimos Delikaraoglou, Demitris

An isocurvature surface of a gravity field is a surface on which the value of the plumblines' curvature is constant. Here we are going to study the isocurvature surfaces of the Earth's normal gravity field. The normal gravity field is a symmetric gravity field therefore the isocurvature surfaces are surfaces of revolution. But even in this case the necessary relations for their study are not simple at all. Therefore to study an isocurvature surface we make special assumptions to form a vector equation which will hold only for a small coordinate patch of the isocurvature surface. Yet from the definition of the isocurvature surface and the properties of the normal gravity field is possible to express very interesting global geometrical properties of these surfaces without mixing surface differential calculus. The gradient of the plumblines' curvature function is vertical to an isocurvature surface. If P is a point of an isocurvature surface and "Φ" is the angle of the gradient of the plumblines' curvature with the equatorial plane then this direction points to the direction along which the curvature of the plumbline decreases / increases the most, and therefore is related to the strength of the normal gravity field. We will show that this direction is constant along a line of curvature of the isocurvature surface and this line is an isocurvature circle . In addition we will show that at each isocurvature surface there is at least one isocurvature circle along which the direction of the maximum variation of the plumblines' curvature function is parallel to the equatorial plane of the ellipsoid of revolution. This circle is defined as a Special Isocurvature Circle (SIC). Finally we shall prove that all these SIC lye on a special surface of revolution, the so - called SIC surface. That is to say, a SIC is not an isolated curve in the three dimensional space.

Monotone lattice recurrence relations such as the Frenkel-Kontorova lattice, arise in Hamiltonian lattice mechanics, as models for ferromagnetism and as discretization of elliptic PDEs. Mathematically, they are a multi-dimensional counterpart of monotone twist maps. Such recurrence relations often admit a variational structure, so that the solutions x:Z→R are the stationary points of a formal action function W(x). Given any rotation vector ω∈R, classical Aubry-Mather theory establishes the existence of a large collection of solutions of ∇W(x)=0 of rotation vector ω. For irrational ω, this is the well-known Aubry-Mather set. It consists of global minimizers and it may have gaps. In this paper, we study the parabolic gradient flow /

=-∇W(x) and we will prove that every Aubry-Mather set can be interpolated by a continuous gradient-flow invariant family, the so-called 'ghost circle '. The existence of these ghost circles is known in dimension d=1, for rational rotation vectors and Morse action functions. The main technical result of this paper is therefore a compactness theorem for lattice ghost circles , based on a parabolic Harnack inequality for the gradient flow. This implies the existence of lattice ghost circles of arbitrary rotation vectors and for arbitrary actions. As a consequence, we can give a simple proof of the fact that when an Aubry-Mather set has a gap, then this gap must be filled with minimizers, or contain a non-minimizing solution.

Tummuru, Tarun R. Jain, Sudhir R. Khare, Avinash

We investigate a quantum many-body system with particles moving in a circle and subject to two-body and three-body potentials. This class of models, in which the range of interaction r can be set to a certain number of neighbors, extrapolates from a system with interactions up to next-to-nearest neighbors and the celebrated Calogero-Sutherland model. The exact ground state energy and a part of the excitation spectrum have been obtained.

Good evening. I'd like to invite you to join me on a journey that could be entitled “Full Circle : Star Ferry to Stardust”. “Star Ferry” represents Hong Kong, my home town, and especially its university - Hong Kong University - as I knew it during the years of World War II. “Stardust” refers to our gathering here to report on our research on possible organic chemistry in space.

Christian, Allen T. Pattee, Melissa S. Attix, Cristina M. Tucker, James D.

Rolling circle amplification (RCA) has been useful for detecting point mutations in isolated nucleic acids, but its application in cytological preparations has been problematic. By pretreating cells with a combination of restriction enzymes and exonucleases, we demonstrate RCA in solution and in situ to detect gene copy number and single base mutations. It can also detect and quantify transcribed RNA in individual cells, making it a versatile tool for cell-based assays.

Yang, Jing Wang, Feng Li, Zhiming

In order to obtain the high accurate time signal for the Low Latitude Meridian Circle (LLMC), a new GPS accurate time system is developed which include GPS, 1 MC frequency source and self-made clock system. The second signal of GPS is synchronously used in the clock system and information can be collected by a computer automatically. The difficulty of the cancellation of the time keeper can be overcomed by using this system.

Evans, Steven T Stewart, Kevin D Afdahl, Chris Patel, Rohan Newell, Kelcy J

In this paper, we discuss the optimization and implementation of a high throughput process development (HTPD) tool that utilizes commercially available micro-liter sized column technology for the purification of multiple clinically significant monoclonal antibodies. Chromatographic profiles generated using this optimized tool are shown to overlay with comparable profiles from the conventional bench-scale and clinical manufacturing scale. Further, all product quality attributes measured are comparable across scales for the mAb purifications. In addition to supporting chromatography process development efforts (e.g., optimization screening), comparable product quality results at all scales makes this tool is an appropriate scale model to enable purification and product quality comparisons of HTPD bioreactors conditions. The ability to perform up to 8 chromatography purifications in parallel with reduced material requirements per run creates opportunities for gathering more process knowledge in less time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Quality assurance programmes for radiographic processing traditionally employ expensive sensitometric and densitometric techniques. However cheap and simple devices for monitoring radiographic processing are available. The aim of this study was to make a comparison of four such devices in terms of their ability to detect variations in radiographic density of clinical significance. Three of the devices are commercially available while the fourth is easily manufactured from waste materials. Ideal bitewing exposure times were selected for four different kilovoltage/film speed combinations. Phantom bitewing radiographs, exposed using these exposure times, were processed using a variety of times and developer temperatures to simulate variations in radiographic quality due to inadequate processing conditions. Test films, produced using the four monitoring devices, were exposed and processed under identical conditions. The phantom bitewings were judged to have 'acceptable' quality when the optical density of that part of the film not showing calcified structures was within +/- 0.5 of that of the film processed under optimal conditions. The efficacy of the monitoring devices in indicating the adequacy of processing was assessed by a comparison of their readings with those made from the phantom bitewings. None of the monitoring devices was ideal for all the kilovoltage/film speed combinations tested, but the homemade device proved to be the most generally effective. We conclude that guidelines to dentists on radiographic quality assurance should include reference to and details of this simple device.

Gilliland, Yvonne E Lavie, Carl J Ahmad, Homaa Bernal, Jose A Cash, Michael E Dinshaw, Homeyar Milani, Richard V Shah, Sangeeta Bienvenu, Lisa White, Christopher J

We describe our process for quality improvement (QI) for a 3-year accreditation cycle in echocardiography by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) for a large group practice. Echocardiographic laboratory accreditation by the IAC was introduced in 1996, which is not required but could impact reimbursement. To ensure high- quality patient care and community recognition as a facility committed to providing high- quality echocardiographic services, we applied for IAC accreditation in 2010. Currently, there is little published data regarding the IAC process to meet echocardiography standards. We describe our approach for developing a multicampus QI process for echocardiographic laboratory accreditation during the 3-year cycle of accreditation by the IAC. We developed a quarterly review assessing (1) the variability of the interpretations, (2) the quality of the examinations, (3) a correlation of echocardiographic studies with other imaging modalities, (4) the timely completion of reports, (5) procedure volume, (6) maintenance of Continuing Medical Education credits by faculty, and (7) meeting Appropriate Use Criteria. We developed and implemented a multicampus process for QI during the 3-year accreditation cycle by the IAC for Echocardiography. We documented both the process and the achievement of those metrics by the Echocardiography Laboratories at the Ochsner Medical Institutions. We found the QI process using IAC standards to be a continuous educational experience for our Echocardiography Laboratory physicians and staff. We offer our process as an example and guide for other echocardiography laboratories who wish to apply for such accreditation or reaccreditation. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Borderías, Antonio J Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel

First processing steps of fish are species-dependent and have common practices for wild and for farmed fish. Fish farming does, however, have certain advantages over traditional fisheries in that the processor can influence postmortem biochemistry and various quality parameters. This review summarizes information about the primary processing of fish based on the influence of catching, slaughtering, bleeding, gutting, washing, and filleting. Recommendations are given for the correct primary processing of fish. PMID:21535702

Wilken, Marlene Nunn, Martha

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of both the Talking Circles (TCs) and diabetes self-management education (DSME) results in better adherence and outcomes for diabetes self-management than DSME alone in American Indians (AIs) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A quasiexperimental, mixed-methods approach was used for AIs with uncontrolled T2DM, defined by an A1C > 7.0%. The experimental group (n = 20) participated in a TC and received DSME. The control group (n = 19) received only DSME. Talking Circles were audio-taped and analyzed qualitatively. Quantitative data were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation and Fisher exact test for all study participants every 3 months for 1 year. Results Themes identified by TC participants were spirituality, gratitude, and sharing. Major topics of discussion were the experiences of living with T2DM, including challenges and coping. Evidence of positive trends for the experimental group who received the TC intervention included lower systolic blood pressure, lower A1C, lower weight over time, and increased adherence without incentives. Conclusion Talking Circles may have utility in improving adherence in AI adults with uncontrolled T2DM. Further studies are warranted, including extending the use of the TCs after completion of DSME sessions.

Gatrell, Lance B. Hoff, William A. Sklair, Cheryl W.

Many computer vision tasks can be simplified if special image features are placed on the objects to be recognized. A review of special image features that have been used in the past is given and then a new image feature, the concentric contrasting circle , is presented. The concentric contrasting circle image feature has the advantages of being easily manufactured, easily extracted from the image, robust extraction (true targets are found, while few false targets are found), it is a passive feature, and its centroid is completely invariant to the three translational and one rotational degrees of freedom and nearly invariant to the remaining two rotational degrees of freedom. There are several examples of existing parallel implementations which perform most of the extraction work. Extraction robustness was measured by recording the probability of correct detection and the false alarm rate in a set of images of scenes containing mockups of satellites, fluid couplings, and electrical components. A typical application of concentric contrasting circle features is to place them on modeled objects for monocular pose estimation or object identification. This feature is demonstrated on a visually challenging background of a specular but wrinkled surface similar to a multilayered insulation spacecraft thermal blanket.

Jones, Jeremy Grosvenor, Sandy Wolf, Karl Li, Connie Koratkar, Anuradha Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

A clear goal of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to enable new science through analysis of integrated astronomical archives. An additional and powerful possibility of the VO is to link and integrate these new analyses with planning of new observations. By providing tools that can be used for observation planning in the VO, the VO will allow the data lifecycle to come full circle : from theory to observations to data and back around to new theories and new observations. The Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) Simulation Facility (SSF) is working to combine the ability to access existing archives with the ability to model and visualize new observations. Integrating the two will allow astronomers to better use the integrated archives of the VO to plan and predict the success of potential new observations. The full circle lifecycle enabled by SEA can allow astronomers to make substantial leaps in the quality of data and science returns on new observations. Our paper will examine the exciting potential of integrating archival analysis with new observation planning, such as performing data calibration analysis on archival images and using that analysis to predict the success of new observations, or performing dynamic signal-to-noise analysis combining historical results with modeling of new instruments or targets. We will also describe how the development of the SSF is progressing and what has been its successes and challenges.

Grosvenor, Sandy Jones, Jeremy Koratkar, Anuradha Li, Connie Mackey, Jennifer Neher, Ken Wolf, Karl Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

A clear goal of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to enable new science through analysis of integrated astronomical archives. An additional and powerful possibility of the VO is to link and integrate these new analyses with planning of new observations. By providing tools that can be used for observation planning in the VO, the VO will allow the data lifecycle to come full circle : from theory to observations to data and back around to new theories and new observations. The Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) Simulation Facility (SSF) is working to combine the ability to access existing archives with the ability to model and visualize new observations. Integrating the two will allow astronomers to better use the integrated archives of the VO to plan and predict the success of potential new observations more efficiently, The full circle lifecycle enabled by SEA can allow astronomers to make substantial leaps in the quality of data and science returns on new observations. Our paper examines the exciting potential of integrating archival analysis with new observation planning, such as performing data calibration analysis on archival images and using that analysis to predict the success of new observations, or performing dynamic signal-to-noise analysis combining historical results with modeling of new instruments or targets. We will also describe how the development of the SSF is progressing and what have been its successes and challenges.

Pei, Feng-Que Li, Dong-Bo Tong, Yi-Fei He, Fei

Human involvement influences traditional service quality evaluations, which triggers an evaluation's low accuracy, poor reliability and less impressive predictability. This paper proposes a method by employing a support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory to evaluate the service quality of a production process by handling a high number of input features with a low sampling data set, which is called SVMs-DS. Features that can affect production quality are extracted by a large number of sensors. Preprocessing steps such as feature simplification and normalization are reduced. Based on three individual SVM models, the basic probability assignments (BPAs) are constructed, which can help the evaluation in a qualitative and quantitative way. The process service quality evaluation results are validated by the Dempster rules the decision threshold to resolve conflicting results is generated from three SVM models. A case study is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SVMs-DS method.

Remote sensing data analysis of water quality monitoring is evaluated. Data anaysis and image processing techniques are applied to LANDSAT remote sensing data to produce an effective operational tool for lake water quality surveying and monitoring. Digital image processing and analysis techniques were designed, developed, tested, and applied to LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data and conventional surface acquired data. Utilization of these techniques facilitates the surveying and monitoring of large numbers of lakes in an operational manner. Supervised multispectral classification, when used in conjunction with surface acquired water quality indicators, is used to characterize water body trophic status. Unsupervised multispectral classification, when interpreted by lake scientists familiar with a specific water body, yields classifications of equal validity with supervised methods and in a more cost effective manner. Image data base technology is used to great advantage in characterizing other contributing effects to water quality . These effects include drainage basin configuration, terrain slope, soil, precipitation and land cover characteristics.

Gärtner, Fania R Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna Smith, Ian P Scholl, Isabelle Stiggelbout, Anne M Pieterse, Arwen H

To inventory instruments assessing the process of shared decision making and appraise their measurement quality , taking into account the methodological quality of their validation studies. In a systematic review we searched seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Emcare, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier) for studies investigating instruments measuring the process of shared decision making. Per identified instrument, we assessed the level of evidence separately for 10 measurement properties following a three-step procedure: 1) appraisal of the methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, 2) appraisal of the psychometric quality of the measurement property using three possible quality scores, 3) best-evidence synthesis based on the number of studies, their methodological and psychometrical quality , and the direction and consistency of the results. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO: CRD42015023397. We included 51 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 40 shared decision-making process instruments: 16 patient questionnaires, 4 provider questionnaires, 18 coding schemes and 2 instruments measuring multiple perspectives. There is an overall lack of evidence for their measurement quality , either because validation is missing or methods are poor. The best-evidence synthesis indicated positive results for a major part of instruments for content validity (50%) and structural validity (53%) if these were evaluated, but negative results for a major part of instruments when inter-rater reliability (47%) and hypotheses testing (59%) were evaluated. Due to the lack of evidence on measurement quality , the choice for the most appropriate instrument can best be based on the instrument's content and characteristics such as the perspective that they assess. We recommend refinement and validation of existing instruments, and the use of COSMIN

Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna Smith, Ian P. Scholl, Isabelle Stiggelbout, Anne M. Pieterse, Arwen H.

Objective To inventory instruments assessing the process of shared decision making and appraise their measurement quality , taking into account the methodological quality of their validation studies. Methods In a systematic review we searched seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Emcare, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier) for studies investigating instruments measuring the process of shared decision making. Per identified instrument, we assessed the level of evidence separately for 10 measurement properties following a three-step procedure: 1) appraisal of the methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, 2) appraisal of the psychometric quality of the measurement property using three possible quality scores, 3) best-evidence synthesis based on the number of studies, their methodological and psychometrical quality , and the direction and consistency of the results. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO: CRD42015023397. Results We included 51 articles describing the development and/or evaluation of 40 shared decision-making process instruments: 16 patient questionnaires, 4 provider questionnaires, 18 coding schemes and 2 instruments measuring multiple perspectives. There is an overall lack of evidence for their measurement quality , either because validation is missing or methods are poor. The best-evidence synthesis indicated positive results for a major part of instruments for content validity (50%) and structural validity (53%) if these were evaluated, but negative results for a major part of instruments when inter-rater reliability (47%) and hypotheses testing (59%) were evaluated. Conclusions Due to the lack of evidence on measurement quality , the choice for the most appropriate instrument can best be based on the instrument’s content and characteristics such as the perspective that they assess. We recommend refinement and validation of

Sobottka, Stephan B Töpfer, Armin Eberlein-Gonska, Maria Schackert, Gabriele Albrecht, D Michael

Six Sigma is an innovative management- approach to reach practicable zero- defect quality in medical service processes . The Six Sigma principle utilizes strategies, which are based on quantitative measurements and which seek to optimize processes , limit deviations or dispersion from the target process . Hence, Six Sigma aims to eliminate errors or quality problems of all kinds. A pilot project to optimize the preparation for neurosurgery could now show that the Six Sigma method enhanced patient safety in medical care, while at the same time disturbances in the hospital processes and failure costs could be avoided. All six defined safety relevant quality indicators were significantly improved by changes in the workflow by using a standardized process - and patient- oriented approach. Certain defined quality standards such as a 100% complete surgical preparation at start of surgery and the required initial contact of the surgeon with the patient/ surgical record on the eve of surgery could be fulfilled within the range of practical zero- defect quality . Likewise, the degree of completion of the surgical record by 4 p.m. on the eve of surgery and their quality could be improved by a factor of 170 and 16, respectively, at sigma values of 4.43 and 4.38. The other two safety quality indicators "non-communicated changes in the OR- schedule" and the "completeness of the OR- schedule by 12:30 a.m. on the day before surgery" also show an impressive improvement by a factor of 2.8 and 7.7, respectively, corresponding with sigma values of 3.34 and 3.51. The results of this pilot project demonstrate that the Six Sigma method is eminently suitable for improving quality of medical processes . In our experience this methodology is suitable, even for complex clinical processes with a variety of stakeholders. In particular, in processes in which patient safety plays a key role, the objective of achieving a zero- defect quality is reasonable and should definitely be aspirated. Copyright

In the past two decades, worldwide demands for meat and seafood products have increased dramatically due to the improved economical condition in many countries. To meet the demand, the producers have increased the production of meat and seafood products as well as applied new processing techniques t.

Peng, Ji-yu Song, Xing-lin Liu, Fei Bao, Yi-dan He, Yong

The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

Dong, Wen Li, Huai-En Li, Jia-Ke

In order to find the water quality evolution law and pollution characteristics of the rainfall runoff from undisturbed to the neighborhood exit, 6 times evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality were monitored and analyzed from July to October in 2011, and contrasted the clarification efficiency of the grassland to the roof runoff rudimentarily at the same time. The research showed: 1. the results of the comparison from "undisturbed, rainfall-roof, rainfall runoff-road, rainfall-runoff the neighborhood exit runoff " showed that the water quality of the undisturbed rain was better than that from the roof and the neighborhood exist, but the road rainfall runoff water quality was the worst 2. the average concentrations of the parameters such as COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen all exceeded the Fifth Class of the Surface Water Quality Standard except for the soluble total phosphorus from undisturbed rainfall to the neighborhood exit 3. the runoff water quality of the short early fine days was better than that of long early fine days, and the last runoff water quality was better than that of the initial runoff in the same rainfall process 4. the concentration reduction of the grassland was notable, and the reduction rate of the grassland which is 1.0 meter wide of the roof runoff pollutants such as COD and nitrogen reached 30%.

Getzin, Stephan Yizhaq, Hezi Bell, Bronwyn Erickson, Todd E. Postle, Anthony C. Katra, Itzhak Tzuk, Omer Zelnik, Yuval R. Wiegand, Kerstin Wiegand, Thorsten Meron, Ehud

Vegetation gap patterns in arid grasslands, such as the “fairy circles” of Namibia, are one of nature’s greatest mysteries and subject to a lively debate on their origin. They are characterized by small-scale hexagonal ordering of circular bare-soil gaps that persists uniformly in the landscape scale to form a homogeneous distribution. Pattern-formation theory predicts that such highly ordered gap patterns should be found also in other water-limited systems across the globe, even if the mechanisms of their formation are different. Here we report that so far unknown fairy circles with the same spatial structure exist 10,000 km away from Namibia in the remote outback of Australia. Combining fieldwork, remote sensing, spatial pattern analysis, and process -based mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that these patterns emerge by self-organization, with no correlation with termite activity the driving mechanism is a positive biomass–water feedback associated with water runoff and biomass-dependent infiltration rates. The remarkable match between the patterns of Australian and Namibian fairy circles and model results indicate that both patterns emerge from a nonuniform stationary instability, supporting a central universality principle of pattern-formation theory. Applied to the context of dryland vegetation, this principle predicts that different systems that go through the same instability type will show similar vegetation patterns even if the feedback mechanisms and resulting soil–water distributions are different, as we indeed found by comparing the Australian and the Namibian fairy- circle ecosystems. These results suggest that biomass–water feedbacks and resultant vegetation gap patterns are likely more common in remote drylands than is currently known. PMID:26976567

Osmotic treatment describes a preparation step to further processing of foods involving simultaneous transient moisture loss and solids gain when immersing in osmotic solutions, resulting in partial drying and improving the overall quality of food products. The different aspects of the osmotic dehydration (OD) technology namely the solutes employed, solutions characteristics used, process variables influence, as well as, the quality characteristics of the osmodehydrated products will be discussed in this review. As the process is carried out at mild temperatures and the moisture is removed by a liquid diffusion process , phase change that would be present in the other drying processes will be avoided, resulting in high quality products and may also lead to substantial energy savings. To optimize this process , modeling of the mass transfer phenomenon can improve high product quality . Several techniques such as microwave heating, vacuum, high pressure, pulsed electric field, etc. may be employed during or after osmotic treatment to enhance performance of the osmotic dehydration. Moreover new technologies used in osmotic dehydration will be discussed. Patents on osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables are also discussed in this article.

Fault detection and diagnosis is an important problem in process engineering. Process equipments are subject to malfunctions during operation. Galvanized steel is a value added product, furnishing effective performance by combining the corrosion resistance of zinc with the strength and formability of steel. Fault detection and diagnosis is an important problem in continuous hot dip galvanizing and the increasingly stringent quality requirements in automotive industry has also demanded ongoing efforts in process control to make the process more robust. When faults occur, they change the relationship among these observed variables. This work compares different statistical regression models proposed in the literature for estimating the quality of galvanized steel coils on the basis of short time histories. Data for 26 batches were available. Five variables were selected for monitoring the process : the steel strip velocity, four bath temperatures and bath level. The entire data consisting of 48 galvanized steel coils was divided into sets. The first training data set was 25 conforming coils and the second data set was 23 nonconforming coils. Logistic regression is a modeling tool in which the dependent variable is categorical. In most applications, the dependent variable is binary. The results show that the logistic generalized linear models do provide good estimates of quality coils and can be useful for quality control in manufacturing process .


The Bottom Line

Having quality control in place within a business can only help ensure product quality and the overall success of a business. The environment of quality control influences employees' attitudes about the workplace and creates a sense of ownership in the products and company as a whole. Quality control can be done in various ways, from training personnel to creating data-driven tools to test products and set standards. Quality control methods help create a safe work environment and product safety that benefits customers and the company alike.


Opinion: Bill aims to strip away water safeguards and hang Ohioans out to dry

A bill making its way around the Statehouse seeks to remove pollution control for a large swath of Ohio streams and wetlands.

If House Bill 175 is passed, Ohio water safeguards would align with the new federal Navigable Waters Protection Rule (NWPR), which went into effect in June 2020 and removed Clean Water Act protections from more than 70% of U.S. waterways.

The NWPR contrasts sharply with the increasingly frequent news reports that droughts, contaminants, algal blooms and other stressors threaten our waters.

Ohio has been center-stage for many water problems, including the continuing water-quality crisis in Lake Erie, mussel die-offs in streams and pollution of the Ohio River.

Justifying removal of protections for Ohio waters based on the scientifically unsupported and environmentally dangerous NWPR is flawed logic and would lead to poor policy for both environmental and human well-being in Ohio.

If passed, the bill would deregulate &ldquoephemeral features,&rdquo allowing them to be dredged, filled, polluted and otherwise damaged without a permit. Ephemeral features are surface waters such as streams and wetlands that flow or pool following rain or snow.

Ohio has about 45,000 miles of ephemeral streams, most of which are located in the sensitive headwaters of watersheds. Ohio already has lost around 90% of its historic wetlands, and more would be in jeopardy under the proposed legislation. Both ephemeral streams and wetlands already are highly threatened by human activities such as development and roads, as well as by climate change.

Healthy stream ecosystems require that nature&rsquos pattern of stream flows &ndash from floods to dry periods &ndash be allowed to stay relatively intact. Just as the short-term production of insulin after eating and adrenaline after a stressful situation are critical to the functioning of the human body, the pulsed, short-term flows of ephemeral streams are essential for the functioning of watersheds.

Ephemeral streams contribute to environmental and human health by trapping pollutants, reducing floods, supplying unpolluted water to downstream lakes and reservoirs, providing wildlife habitat and sustaining fisheries.

Ephemeral wetlands also provide sensitive habitats of high importance for birds, mammals, reptiles, insects and amphibians. Even wetlands that appear to be isolated continue to filter and cycle a wide range of chemicals, nutrients and sediments.

The ecosystem services of wetlands outside of floodplains &ndash including ephemeral wetlands &ndash contribute an estimated $673 billion per year in ecosystem services to the U.S. economy.

The extent to which the NWPR, and by extension House Bill 175, ignores science is unprecedented, and will lead to degradation of Ohio&rsquos waters. Clean water sustains healthy and productive lands, watersheds, wildlife and people, and the removal of ephemeral streams and wetlands from protection would compromise the ecosystem services these systems provide to Ohioans.

Moreover, the number of excluded waters &ndash already large &ndash is likely to increase over time, as groundwater use and climate change reduce flows, dry out streams and isolate wetlands.

House Bill 175 contradicts both science and Clean Water Act mandates and will undermine decades of investment by taxpayers to clean and protect our waters.

This change would result in irreparable damage to freshwater ecosystems and exacerbate the impacts of climate change and pollutants that already threaten our most critical resource: clean water. Ohioans must let lawmakers know how they feel about this dangerous bill.

S. Mažeika P. Sullivan is an associate professor at Ohio State University, and the director of the Schiermeier Olentangy River Wetland Research Park. He was a member of the EPA&rsquos Science Advisory Board panel that reviewed the science underlying the 2015 Clean Water Rule, provided Congressional briefings on the subject and has published multiple articles related to water protection .


California state water control board aims to improve water quality by partnering with IBM

A new application that enables iPhone users to help monitor water quality and alert authorities to problems, is now available in Apple’s App Store. The first state to partner with IBM to use this data to monitor the thousands of miles of creeks and streams in their jurisdiction is California’s State Water Control Board.

Developed by IBM Research and available for free at Apple’s App Store, Creek Watch is an easy-to-use application that allows community members to snap a photo of a creek or stream and answer three simple questions about the particular waterway. The data is uploaded in real-time to a central database, accessible by water authorities responsible for monitoring local water supplies.

According to the United Nations, contaminated water kills more people than all wars, crimes and terrorism combined every 20 seconds, an infant dies from polluted water. While most agree that water is among our most precious resources, what many do not realize is that we walk over and drive past our drinking water everyday, making valuable observations about the water’s condition as we do so. Creek Watch makes it easy to capture these observations, providing water resource managers with additional insight and data to better ensure a sustainable water supply.

Creek Watch uses a combination of the iPhone’s built-in location sensor and user contributed data to provide information that is valuable for water management analysis – e.g., at what times of the year specific creeks begin to run dry or when the water levels are at capacity.

Contributing water data with IBM’s Creek Watch app requires just four easy steps:

· Use the iPhone’s built-in camera to snap a photo of a waterway
· Specify the Water Level: Dry, Some or Full
· Specify the Flow Rate: Still, Slow or Fast
· Specify the Trash Level: None, Some or A lot

“Creek Watch lets the average citizen contribute to the health of their water supply – without PhDs, chemistry kits and a lot of time,” said Christine Robson, IBM Research. “Harnessing the crowdsourced data movement for a cause people care about is a win-win-win for citizens, local water boards and IBM’s desire to solve big data challenges.”

In many cases the organizations charged with monitoring local water conditions are over-extended and unable to physically monitor creeks and streams on their own due to the sheer volume of waterways.

"With about 800 miles of creeks in Santa Clara County alone, we need innovative technologies like this one to empower the community to help us continuously improve our water quality and the environment," said Carol Boland, Watershed Biologist for the City of San Jose. “An amazing characteristic of IBM's Creek Watch app is that it's accessible to anyone that has an iPhone and doesn't require a huge commitment to do something that will really benefit the creeks."

Capitalizing on the phenomenon of crowdsourcing for data collection, IBM researchers hope that this and other applications will launch a new sense of environmental awareness within the community.


California Air Resources Board

AB 32 requires California to reduce its GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 — a reduction of approximately 15 percent below emissions expected under a “business as usual” scenario.

Pursuant to AB 32, CARB must adopt regulations to achieve the maximum technologically feasible and cost-effective GHG emission reductions. The full implementation of AB 32 will help mitigate risks associated with climate change, while improving energy efficiency, expanding the use of renewable energy resources, cleaner transportation, and reducing waste.

Why is AB 32 Needed?

According to leading climate scientists from around the world, anthropogenic climate change (that caused by humans) is a significant and growing problem that must be addressed in order to avoid the worst effects. Climate change is the result of various GHGs that are emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), which have a heat forcing effect on the atmosphere. Sharp rises of GHGs over the last century and a half have led to higher overall worldwide temperatures, reduced snowpack in the higher elevations, greater fluctuations of temperature and precipitation, global sea level rise and more frequent and severe extreme weather events, including hurricanes, heatwaves and droughts.

AB 32 describes the problem for California:

The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:

(a) Global warming poses a serious threat to the economic well-being, public health, natural resources, and the environment of California. The potential adverse impacts of global warming include the exacerbation of air quality problems, a reduction in the quality and supply of water to the state from the Sierra snowpack, a rise in sea levels resulting in the displacement of thousands of coastal businesses and residences, damage to marine ecosystems and the natural environment, and an increase in the incidences of infectious diseases, asthma, and other human health-related problems.

(b) Global warming will have detrimental effects on some of California’s largest industries, including agriculture, wine, tourism, skiing, recreational and commercial fishing, and forestry. It will also increase the strain on electricity supplies necessary to meet the demand for summer air-conditioning in the hottest parts of the state.

Separate from AB 32, the State of California is also making efforts to adapt to a changing climate. The State’s climate change adaptation efforts are being led by the Natural Resources Agency.

What Gases or Compounds are Covered Under AB 32?

AB 32 includes the major GHGs and groups of GHGs that are being emitted into the atmosphere. These gases include:

  1. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  2. Methane (CH4)
  3. Nitrous oxide (N2O)
  4. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  5. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  6. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
  7. Nitrogen trifluoride* (NF3)

*Nitrogen trifluoride was not listed initially in AB 32 but was subsequently added to the list via legislation.

Other compounds, including some aerosols, can also have a strong heat forcing effect on the atmosphere. This includes black carbon, comprised of microscopic particles which are emitted from incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels. Reducing black carbon and other so-called short-lived climate pollutants (methane, tropospheric ozone and some hydrofluorocarbons) will help us slow the acceleration of climate change sooner than by reducing emissions of other GHGs alone. It will also improve public health, and will be an important element of California’s climate change program strategy.

CARB annually updates a statewide GHG inventory. The inventory includes estimates of GHGs emitted to the atmosphere by human activities in California.

How Will AB 32 Goals be Met?

AB 32 requires CARB to develop a Scoping Plan which lays out California’s strategy for meeting the goals. The Scoping Plan must be updated every five years. In December 2008, the Board approved the initial Scoping Plan, which included a suite of measures to sharply cut GHG emissions. In May 2014, CARB approved the First Update to the Climate Change Scoping Plan (Update), which builds upon the initial Scoping Plan with new strategies and recommendations. The Update highlights California’s progress toward meeting the near-term 2020 GHG emission reduction goals, highlights the latest climate change science and provides direction on how to achieve long-term emission reduction goal described in Executive Order S-3-05.

Reductions in GHG emissions will come from virtually all sectors of the economy and will be accomplished from a combination of policies, planning, direct regulations, market approaches, incentives and voluntary efforts. These efforts target GHG emission reductions from cars and trucks, electricity production, fuels, and other sources. The status of these efforts can be found in Appendix B of the Update.

Who is Implementing AB 32?

AB 32 directs the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to be the lead agency to implement the law. The Climate Action Team, made up of relevant state agencies, is charged with helping direct state efforts on the reduction of GHG emissions and engaging state agencies.

The Climate Action Team includes:

  • California Environmental Protection Agency
  • Governor’s Office of Planning and Research
  • California Air Resources Board
  • Business, Consumer Services, and Housing Agency
  • Government Operations Agency
  • California Natural Resources Agency
  • California Department of Public Health
  • Office of Emergency Services
  • California Transportation Agency
  • California Energy Commission
  • California Public Utilities Commission
  • California Department of Food and Agriculture
  • Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
  • Department of Fish and Wildlife
  • Department of Transportation
  • Department of Water Resources
  • Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery
  • State Water Resources Control Board

How is the Implementation of AB 32 Funded?

AB 32 authorizes the collection of a fee from sources of GHGs. In 2010, CARB adopted a regulation to collect a fee to administer the program, called the AB 32 Cost of Implementation Fee Regulation. This fee is collected annually from large sources of GHGs, including oil refineries, electricity power plants (including imported electricity), cement plants and other industrial sources. There are approximately 250 fee payers that emit 330 million metric tons of GHG emissions per year. Funds collected are used to cover annual expenses for CARB and other State agencies to implement AB 32.

Are there Other Funds Used to Reduce GHG Emissions in California?

Yes, in addition to California’s regulatory and market-based programs aimed at reducing GHG emissions, investments from various sources provide incentives for companies to reduce emissions. Combining strategic financial investments with policy support can accelerate market transitions to cleaner technologies. One important source of funding is the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund (GGRF), which will be used to fund a variety of projects that will provide long-term reductions in GHG emissions. Funding for the GGRF comes from auction proceeds that are part of CARB’s Cap-and-Trade program. As directed by legislation, CARB’s Investment Plan evaluates opportunities for GHG reductions and identifies priority investments in the state to help achieve emission goals and realize important co-benefits.

More detailed information on funding for reducing GHG emissions in California can be found on the Cap-and-Trade Auction Proceeds webpage, and in the First Update to the Scoping Plan starting on page 104.


Watch the video: Φ Κουρεμπές Αποζημιώσεις Κόκκινα δάνεια νέος αγρότης


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